Bifurcations of stable sets in noninvertible planar maps

J.P. England, B. Krauskopf, H.M. Osinga

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Many applications give rise to systems that can be described by maps that do not have a unique inverse. We consider here the case of a planar noninvertible map. Such a map folds the phase plane, so that there are regions with different numbers of preimages. The locus, where the number of preimages changes, is made up of so-called critical curves, that are defined as the images of the locus where the Jacobian is singular. A typical critical curve corresponds to a fold under the map, so that the number of preimages changes by two.

We consider the question of how the stable set of a hyperbolic saddle of a planar noninvertible map changes when a parameter is varied. The stable set is the generalization of the stable manifold for the case of an invertible map. Owing to the changing number of preimages, the stable set of a noninvertible map may consist of finitely or even infinitely many disjoint branches. It is now possible to compute stable sets with the Search Circle algorithm that we developed recently.

We take a bifurcation theory point of view and consider the two basic codimension-one interactions of the stable set with a critical curve, which we call the outer-fold and the inner-fold bifurcations. By taking into account how the stable set is organized globally, these two bifurcations allow one to classify the different possible changes to the structure of a basin of attraction that are reported in the literature. The fundamental difference between the stable set and the unstable manifold is discussed. The results are motivated and illustrated with a single example of a two-parameter family of planar noninvertible maps.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)891-904
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2005


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