The popular docking programs AutoDock, FlexX, and GOLD were used to predict binding modes of ligands in crystallographic complexes including X-ray water molecules or computationally predicted water molecules. Isoenzymes of two different enzyme systems were used, namely cytochromes P450 (n -19) and thymidine kinases (n = 19) and three different "water" scenarios: i.e., docking (i) into water-free active sites, (ii) into active sites containing crystallographic water molecules, and (iii) into active sites containing water molecules predicted by a novel approach based on the program GRID. Docking accuracies were determined in terms of the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) accuracy and, newly defined, in terms of the ligand catalytic site prediction (CSP) accuracy. Consideration of both X-ray and predicted water molecules and the subsequent pooling and rescoring of all solutions (generated by all three docking programs) with the SCORE scoring function significantly improved the quality of prediction of the binding modes both in terms of RMSD and CSP accuracy. © 2005 American Chemical Society.