Birth weight and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): a meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

E. Govarts, M. Nieuwenhuijsen, G. Schoeters, F. Ballester, K. Bloemen, M.R. de Boer, C. Chevrier, M. Eggesbo, M. Guxens, U. Kramer, J. Legler, D. Martinez, L. Palkovicova, E. Patelarou, U. Ranft, A. Rautio, M.S. Petersen, R. Slama, H. Stigum, G. Toft & 7 others T. Trnovec, S. Vandentorren, P. Weihe, N.W. Kuperus, M. Wilhelm, J. Wittsiepe, J.P. Bonde

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight. Methods: We used maternal and cord blood and breast milk samples of 7,990 women enrolled in 15 study populations from 12 European birth cohorts from 1990 through 2008. Using identical variable definitions, we performed for each cohort linear regression of birth weight on estimates of cord serum concentration of PCB-153 and p,p'-DDE adjusted for gestational age and apriori selected covariates. We obtained summary estimates by meta-analysis and performed analyses of interactions. Results: The median concentration of cord serum PCB-153 was 140ng/L (range of cohort medians 20-484ng/L) and that of p,p'-DDE was 528ng/L (range of cohort medians 50-1,208ng/L). Birth weight decreased with increasing cord serum concentration of PCB-153 after adjustment for potential confounders in 12 of 15 study populations. The meta-analysis including all cohorts indicated a birth weight decline of 150g [95% confidence interval (CI): -250, -50g] per 1-μg/L increase in PCB-153, an exposure contrast that is close to the range of exposures across the cohorts. A 1-μg/L increase in p,p'-DDE was associated with a 7-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: -18, 4g). Conclusions: The findings suggest that low-level exposure to PCB (or correlated exposures) impairs fetal growth, but that exposure to p,p'-DDE does not. The study adds to mounting evidence that low-level exposure to PCBs is inversely associated with fetal growth.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-170
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume120
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Birth Weight
Meta-Analysis
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene
Parturition
European Union
Fetal Development
Serum
Confidence Intervals
Endocrine Disruptors
Environmental Health
Human Milk
Fetal Blood
Population
Gestational Age
Linear Models
Obesity
Mothers

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Govarts, E. ; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. ; Schoeters, G. ; Ballester, F. ; Bloemen, K. ; de Boer, M.R. ; Chevrier, C. ; Eggesbo, M. ; Guxens, M. ; Kramer, U. ; Legler, J. ; Martinez, D. ; Palkovicova, L. ; Patelarou, E. ; Ranft, U. ; Rautio, A. ; Petersen, M.S. ; Slama, R. ; Stigum, H. ; Toft, G. ; Trnovec, T. ; Vandentorren, S. ; Weihe, P. ; Kuperus, N.W. ; Wilhelm, M. ; Wittsiepe, J. ; Bonde, J.P. / Birth weight and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): a meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts. In: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2012 ; Vol. 120, No. 2. pp. 162-170.
@article{0686503be7574793b7a3a9d432b17978,
title = "Birth weight and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): a meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts",
abstract = "Objectives: Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight. Methods: We used maternal and cord blood and breast milk samples of 7,990 women enrolled in 15 study populations from 12 European birth cohorts from 1990 through 2008. Using identical variable definitions, we performed for each cohort linear regression of birth weight on estimates of cord serum concentration of PCB-153 and p,p'-DDE adjusted for gestational age and apriori selected covariates. We obtained summary estimates by meta-analysis and performed analyses of interactions. Results: The median concentration of cord serum PCB-153 was 140ng/L (range of cohort medians 20-484ng/L) and that of p,p'-DDE was 528ng/L (range of cohort medians 50-1,208ng/L). Birth weight decreased with increasing cord serum concentration of PCB-153 after adjustment for potential confounders in 12 of 15 study populations. The meta-analysis including all cohorts indicated a birth weight decline of 150g [95{\%} confidence interval (CI): -250, -50g] per 1-μg/L increase in PCB-153, an exposure contrast that is close to the range of exposures across the cohorts. A 1-μg/L increase in p,p'-DDE was associated with a 7-g decrease in birth weight (95{\%} CI: -18, 4g). Conclusions: The findings suggest that low-level exposure to PCB (or correlated exposures) impairs fetal growth, but that exposure to p,p'-DDE does not. The study adds to mounting evidence that low-level exposure to PCBs is inversely associated with fetal growth.",
author = "E. Govarts and M. Nieuwenhuijsen and G. Schoeters and F. Ballester and K. Bloemen and {de Boer}, M.R. and C. Chevrier and M. Eggesbo and M. Guxens and U. Kramer and J. Legler and D. Martinez and L. Palkovicova and E. Patelarou and U. Ranft and A. Rautio and M.S. Petersen and R. Slama and H. Stigum and G. Toft and T. Trnovec and S. Vandentorren and P. Weihe and N.W. Kuperus and M. Wilhelm and J. Wittsiepe and J.P. Bonde",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1289/ehp.1103767",
language = "English",
volume = "120",
pages = "162--170",
journal = "Environmental Health Perspectives",
issn = "0091-6765",
publisher = "Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services",
number = "2",

}

Govarts, E, Nieuwenhuijsen, M, Schoeters, G, Ballester, F, Bloemen, K, de Boer, MR, Chevrier, C, Eggesbo, M, Guxens, M, Kramer, U, Legler, J, Martinez, D, Palkovicova, L, Patelarou, E, Ranft, U, Rautio, A, Petersen, MS, Slama, R, Stigum, H, Toft, G, Trnovec, T, Vandentorren, S, Weihe, P, Kuperus, NW, Wilhelm, M, Wittsiepe, J & Bonde, JP 2012, 'Birth weight and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): a meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts' Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 162-170. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103767

Birth weight and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): a meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts. / Govarts, E.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Schoeters, G.; Ballester, F.; Bloemen, K.; de Boer, M.R.; Chevrier, C.; Eggesbo, M.; Guxens, M.; Kramer, U.; Legler, J.; Martinez, D.; Palkovicova, L.; Patelarou, E.; Ranft, U.; Rautio, A.; Petersen, M.S.; Slama, R.; Stigum, H.; Toft, G.; Trnovec, T.; Vandentorren, S.; Weihe, P.; Kuperus, N.W.; Wilhelm, M.; Wittsiepe, J.; Bonde, J.P.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 120, No. 2, 2012, p. 162-170.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Birth weight and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): a meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

AU - Govarts, E.

AU - Nieuwenhuijsen, M.

AU - Schoeters, G.

AU - Ballester, F.

AU - Bloemen, K.

AU - de Boer, M.R.

AU - Chevrier, C.

AU - Eggesbo, M.

AU - Guxens, M.

AU - Kramer, U.

AU - Legler, J.

AU - Martinez, D.

AU - Palkovicova, L.

AU - Patelarou, E.

AU - Ranft, U.

AU - Rautio, A.

AU - Petersen, M.S.

AU - Slama, R.

AU - Stigum, H.

AU - Toft, G.

AU - Trnovec, T.

AU - Vandentorren, S.

AU - Weihe, P.

AU - Kuperus, N.W.

AU - Wilhelm, M.

AU - Wittsiepe, J.

AU - Bonde, J.P.

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Objectives: Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight. Methods: We used maternal and cord blood and breast milk samples of 7,990 women enrolled in 15 study populations from 12 European birth cohorts from 1990 through 2008. Using identical variable definitions, we performed for each cohort linear regression of birth weight on estimates of cord serum concentration of PCB-153 and p,p'-DDE adjusted for gestational age and apriori selected covariates. We obtained summary estimates by meta-analysis and performed analyses of interactions. Results: The median concentration of cord serum PCB-153 was 140ng/L (range of cohort medians 20-484ng/L) and that of p,p'-DDE was 528ng/L (range of cohort medians 50-1,208ng/L). Birth weight decreased with increasing cord serum concentration of PCB-153 after adjustment for potential confounders in 12 of 15 study populations. The meta-analysis including all cohorts indicated a birth weight decline of 150g [95% confidence interval (CI): -250, -50g] per 1-μg/L increase in PCB-153, an exposure contrast that is close to the range of exposures across the cohorts. A 1-μg/L increase in p,p'-DDE was associated with a 7-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: -18, 4g). Conclusions: The findings suggest that low-level exposure to PCB (or correlated exposures) impairs fetal growth, but that exposure to p,p'-DDE does not. The study adds to mounting evidence that low-level exposure to PCBs is inversely associated with fetal growth.

AB - Objectives: Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight. Methods: We used maternal and cord blood and breast milk samples of 7,990 women enrolled in 15 study populations from 12 European birth cohorts from 1990 through 2008. Using identical variable definitions, we performed for each cohort linear regression of birth weight on estimates of cord serum concentration of PCB-153 and p,p'-DDE adjusted for gestational age and apriori selected covariates. We obtained summary estimates by meta-analysis and performed analyses of interactions. Results: The median concentration of cord serum PCB-153 was 140ng/L (range of cohort medians 20-484ng/L) and that of p,p'-DDE was 528ng/L (range of cohort medians 50-1,208ng/L). Birth weight decreased with increasing cord serum concentration of PCB-153 after adjustment for potential confounders in 12 of 15 study populations. The meta-analysis including all cohorts indicated a birth weight decline of 150g [95% confidence interval (CI): -250, -50g] per 1-μg/L increase in PCB-153, an exposure contrast that is close to the range of exposures across the cohorts. A 1-μg/L increase in p,p'-DDE was associated with a 7-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: -18, 4g). Conclusions: The findings suggest that low-level exposure to PCB (or correlated exposures) impairs fetal growth, but that exposure to p,p'-DDE does not. The study adds to mounting evidence that low-level exposure to PCBs is inversely associated with fetal growth.

U2 - 10.1289/ehp.1103767

DO - 10.1289/ehp.1103767

M3 - Article

VL - 120

SP - 162

EP - 170

JO - Environmental Health Perspectives

JF - Environmental Health Perspectives

SN - 0091-6765

IS - 2

ER -