BMP-2 incorporated biomimetic CaP coating functionalized 3D printed Ti6Al4V scaffold induces ectopic bone formation in a dog model

Yifei Gu, Lingfei Wei, Zheru Zhang, Jeroen Van Dessel, Ronald B. Driesen, Ivo Lambrichts, Reinhilde Jacobs, Lei Tian*, Yi Sun, Yuelian Liu, Constantinus Politis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The use of Ti6Al4V in bone engineering is limited, due to the biological inertia of the surface. In this study, a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with mechanical properties similar to cancellous bone was designed and 3D-printed. Under physiological conditions, the scaffold was immersed firstly in a 5-fold-concentrated simulated body fluid, then in a supersaturated CaP solution containing BMP-2, to form a bone-like porous micro/nano structured biomimetic coating on the surface. Scaffolds were implanted in the muscle pouches created in six beagle dogs and were retrieved four weeks later for histologic and histomorphometric analysis. Results showed that BMP-2 integrated biomimetic CaP coating induced ectopic bone formation, which was absent in other two groups. Soft tissue infiltrated the scaffold's outside 1 mm layer, while the new-formed bone was evenly distributed in the longitudinal and horizontal directions within the rest of the scaffold based on BA/TA, BIC and BA measurements. In conclusion, the BMP-2 incorporated biomimetic CaP coating creates a micro/nano surface structure on the Ti6Al4V scaffold, which helps to increase biocompatibility. The integrated BMP-2 is capable of inducing ectopic bone formation in vivo. The proposed combination may have the potential for bone reconstruction, but further studies are needed to explore its clinical applicability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110443
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalMaterials and Design
Early online date2 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledged the contributions of all members of our research group to this article. This research was granted by National Natural Science Foundation of China(NSFC) No. 81670964, and Shandong Taishan Scholar Program to Dr. Yuelian Liu. The authors appreciate Shanghai Rebone Biomaterials Co. for the supply of BMP-2.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022


  • 3D-printing
  • Biomimetics
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 2
  • Bone substitutes
  • Calcium phosphate
  • Titanium alloy


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