Bread or games? A social cost-benefit analysis of the World Cup bid of the Netherlands and the winning Russian bid

M. de Nooij, M. van den Berg, C.C. Koopmans

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Many countries compete fiercely for the right to host mega-events like the World Cup. Proponents of hosting mega-events claim that yields economic gains. Many available studies focus on partial effects of hosting or concern ex post analyses. The authors utilize the existing literature to perform a detailed cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the Netherlands bidding jointly with Belgium for the 2018 World Cup. The authors show that national pride and pleasure come at a price and financial gains are unlikely. Based on this CBA, the authors predict that the costs of the 2018 World Cup in Russia will also exceed the financial benefits. © The Author(s) 2011.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)521-545
JournalJournal of Sports Economics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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