abs Turkey is facing a slight but remarkable reversal in population flows between settlements, a movement known as 'counterurbanisation'. The aim of this paper is to investigate the new patterns of population flows linked to changes in employment. To explore these patterns, the paper focuses on the causality linkages between urban-rural migration and rural employment, with a special focus on entrepreneurship, at the NUTS II level. Data used in this study are obtained from the Turkish Statistical Institute. To determine the link between counterurbanisation and entrepreneurship, a multivariate statistical technique, viz. linear regression analysis, was used. This paper is the first attempt to explore the new trends in migration and employment in Turkey while offering a contemporary context for the different patterns of causal relations between counterurbanisation and entrepreneurship. The results suggest that, in Turkey, the major motivation still remains the pursuit of employment. © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.