Can Exercise Positively Influence the Intervertebral Disc?

Daniel L. Belavý*, Kirsten Albracht, Gert Peter Bruggemann, Pieter Paul A Vergroesen, Jaap H. van Dieën

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

To better understand what kinds of sports and exercise could be beneficial for the intervertebral disc (IVD), we performed a review to synthesise the literature on IVD adaptation with loading and exercise. The state of the literature did not permit a systematic review; therefore, we performed a narrative review. The majority of the available data come from cell or whole-disc loading models and animal exercise models. However, some studies have examined the impact of specific sports on IVD degeneration in humans and acute exercise on disc size. Based on the data available in the literature, loading types that are likely beneficial to the IVD are dynamic, axial, at slow to moderate movement speeds, and of a magnitude experienced in walking and jogging. Static loading, torsional loading, flexion with compression, rapid loading, high-impact loading and explosive tasks are likely detrimental for the IVD. Reduced physical activity and disuse appear to be detrimental for the IVD. We also consider the impact of genetics and the likelihood of a ‘critical period’ for the effect of exercise in IVD development. The current review summarises the literature to increase awareness amongst exercise, rehabilitation and ergonomic professionals regarding IVD health and provides recommendations on future directions in research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)473-485
Number of pages13
JournalSports Medicine
Volume46
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2016

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Belavý, D. L., Albracht, K., Bruggemann, G. P., Vergroesen, P. P. A., & van Dieën, J. H. (2016). Can Exercise Positively Influence the Intervertebral Disc? Sports Medicine, 46(4), 473-485. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0444-2