Case Study on Screening Emerging Pollutants in Urine and Nails

Andreia Alves, Georgios Giovanoulis, Ulrika Nilsson, Claudio Erratico, Luisa Lucattini, Line S. Haug, Griet Jacobs, Cynthia A. De Wit, Pim E.G. Leonards, Adrian Covaci, Jörgen Magner, Stefan Voorspoels

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Alternative plasticizers and flame retardants (FRs) have been introduced as replacements for banned or restricted chemicals, but much is still unknown about their metabolism and occurrence in humans. We identified the metabolites formed in vitro for four alternative plasticizers (acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), bis(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)), and one FR (2,2-bis (chloromethyl)-propane-1,3-diyltetrakis(2-chloroethyl) bisphosphate (V6)). Further, these compounds and their metabolites were investigated by LC/ESI-Orbitrap-MS in urine and finger nails collected from a Norwegian cohort. Primary and secondary ATBC metabolites had detection frequencies (% DF) in finger nails ranging from 46 to 95%. V6 was identified for the first time in finger nails, suggesting that this matrix may also indicate past exposure to FRs as well as alternative plasticizers. Two isomeric forms of DEHTP primary metabolite were highly detected in urine (97% DF) and identified in finger nails, while no DPHP metabolites were detected in vivo. Primary and secondary DEHA metabolites were identified in both matrices, and the relative proportion of the secondary metabolites was higher in urine than in finger nails; the opposite was observed for the primary metabolites. As many of the metabolites present in in vitro extracts were further identified in vivo in urine and finger nail samples, this suggests that in vitro assays can reliably mimic the in vivo processes. Finger nails may be a useful noninvasive matrix for human biomonitoring of specific organic contaminants, but further validation is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4046-4053
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume51
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2017

Fingerprint

Nails
Metabolites
urine
metabolite
Screening
pollutant
Flame Retardants
Plasticizers
phthalate
secondary metabolite
matrix
Citric Acid
propane
biomonitoring
screening
Propane
replacement
metabolism
Metabolism
Assays

Cite this

Alves, A., Giovanoulis, G., Nilsson, U., Erratico, C., Lucattini, L., Haug, L. S., ... Voorspoels, S. (2017). Case Study on Screening Emerging Pollutants in Urine and Nails. Environmental Science and Technology, 51(7), 4046-4053. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05661
Alves, Andreia ; Giovanoulis, Georgios ; Nilsson, Ulrika ; Erratico, Claudio ; Lucattini, Luisa ; Haug, Line S. ; Jacobs, Griet ; De Wit, Cynthia A. ; Leonards, Pim E.G. ; Covaci, Adrian ; Magner, Jörgen ; Voorspoels, Stefan. / Case Study on Screening Emerging Pollutants in Urine and Nails. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2017 ; Vol. 51, No. 7. pp. 4046-4053.
@article{2f7c11cdeab140569de8770e9ec4cc38,
title = "Case Study on Screening Emerging Pollutants in Urine and Nails",
abstract = "Alternative plasticizers and flame retardants (FRs) have been introduced as replacements for banned or restricted chemicals, but much is still unknown about their metabolism and occurrence in humans. We identified the metabolites formed in vitro for four alternative plasticizers (acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), bis(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)), and one FR (2,2-bis (chloromethyl)-propane-1,3-diyltetrakis(2-chloroethyl) bisphosphate (V6)). Further, these compounds and their metabolites were investigated by LC/ESI-Orbitrap-MS in urine and finger nails collected from a Norwegian cohort. Primary and secondary ATBC metabolites had detection frequencies ({\%} DF) in finger nails ranging from 46 to 95{\%}. V6 was identified for the first time in finger nails, suggesting that this matrix may also indicate past exposure to FRs as well as alternative plasticizers. Two isomeric forms of DEHTP primary metabolite were highly detected in urine (97{\%} DF) and identified in finger nails, while no DPHP metabolites were detected in vivo. Primary and secondary DEHA metabolites were identified in both matrices, and the relative proportion of the secondary metabolites was higher in urine than in finger nails; the opposite was observed for the primary metabolites. As many of the metabolites present in in vitro extracts were further identified in vivo in urine and finger nail samples, this suggests that in vitro assays can reliably mimic the in vivo processes. Finger nails may be a useful noninvasive matrix for human biomonitoring of specific organic contaminants, but further validation is needed.",
author = "Andreia Alves and Georgios Giovanoulis and Ulrika Nilsson and Claudio Erratico and Luisa Lucattini and Haug, {Line S.} and Griet Jacobs and {De Wit}, {Cynthia A.} and Leonards, {Pim E.G.} and Adrian Covaci and J{\"o}rgen Magner and Stefan Voorspoels",
year = "2017",
month = "3",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1021/acs.est.6b05661",
language = "English",
volume = "51",
pages = "4046--4053",
journal = "Environmental Science and Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "7",

}

Alves, A, Giovanoulis, G, Nilsson, U, Erratico, C, Lucattini, L, Haug, LS, Jacobs, G, De Wit, CA, Leonards, PEG, Covaci, A, Magner, J & Voorspoels, S 2017, 'Case Study on Screening Emerging Pollutants in Urine and Nails' Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 4046-4053. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05661

Case Study on Screening Emerging Pollutants in Urine and Nails. / Alves, Andreia; Giovanoulis, Georgios; Nilsson, Ulrika; Erratico, Claudio; Lucattini, Luisa; Haug, Line S.; Jacobs, Griet; De Wit, Cynthia A.; Leonards, Pim E.G.; Covaci, Adrian; Magner, Jörgen; Voorspoels, Stefan.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 51, No. 7, 15.03.2017, p. 4046-4053.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Case Study on Screening Emerging Pollutants in Urine and Nails

AU - Alves, Andreia

AU - Giovanoulis, Georgios

AU - Nilsson, Ulrika

AU - Erratico, Claudio

AU - Lucattini, Luisa

AU - Haug, Line S.

AU - Jacobs, Griet

AU - De Wit, Cynthia A.

AU - Leonards, Pim E.G.

AU - Covaci, Adrian

AU - Magner, Jörgen

AU - Voorspoels, Stefan

PY - 2017/3/15

Y1 - 2017/3/15

N2 - Alternative plasticizers and flame retardants (FRs) have been introduced as replacements for banned or restricted chemicals, but much is still unknown about their metabolism and occurrence in humans. We identified the metabolites formed in vitro for four alternative plasticizers (acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), bis(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)), and one FR (2,2-bis (chloromethyl)-propane-1,3-diyltetrakis(2-chloroethyl) bisphosphate (V6)). Further, these compounds and their metabolites were investigated by LC/ESI-Orbitrap-MS in urine and finger nails collected from a Norwegian cohort. Primary and secondary ATBC metabolites had detection frequencies (% DF) in finger nails ranging from 46 to 95%. V6 was identified for the first time in finger nails, suggesting that this matrix may also indicate past exposure to FRs as well as alternative plasticizers. Two isomeric forms of DEHTP primary metabolite were highly detected in urine (97% DF) and identified in finger nails, while no DPHP metabolites were detected in vivo. Primary and secondary DEHA metabolites were identified in both matrices, and the relative proportion of the secondary metabolites was higher in urine than in finger nails; the opposite was observed for the primary metabolites. As many of the metabolites present in in vitro extracts were further identified in vivo in urine and finger nail samples, this suggests that in vitro assays can reliably mimic the in vivo processes. Finger nails may be a useful noninvasive matrix for human biomonitoring of specific organic contaminants, but further validation is needed.

AB - Alternative plasticizers and flame retardants (FRs) have been introduced as replacements for banned or restricted chemicals, but much is still unknown about their metabolism and occurrence in humans. We identified the metabolites formed in vitro for four alternative plasticizers (acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), bis(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)), and one FR (2,2-bis (chloromethyl)-propane-1,3-diyltetrakis(2-chloroethyl) bisphosphate (V6)). Further, these compounds and their metabolites were investigated by LC/ESI-Orbitrap-MS in urine and finger nails collected from a Norwegian cohort. Primary and secondary ATBC metabolites had detection frequencies (% DF) in finger nails ranging from 46 to 95%. V6 was identified for the first time in finger nails, suggesting that this matrix may also indicate past exposure to FRs as well as alternative plasticizers. Two isomeric forms of DEHTP primary metabolite were highly detected in urine (97% DF) and identified in finger nails, while no DPHP metabolites were detected in vivo. Primary and secondary DEHA metabolites were identified in both matrices, and the relative proportion of the secondary metabolites was higher in urine than in finger nails; the opposite was observed for the primary metabolites. As many of the metabolites present in in vitro extracts were further identified in vivo in urine and finger nail samples, this suggests that in vitro assays can reliably mimic the in vivo processes. Finger nails may be a useful noninvasive matrix for human biomonitoring of specific organic contaminants, but further validation is needed.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85019678496&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85019678496&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acs.est.6b05661

DO - 10.1021/acs.est.6b05661

M3 - Article

VL - 51

SP - 4046

EP - 4053

JO - Environmental Science and Technology

JF - Environmental Science and Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 7

ER -

Alves A, Giovanoulis G, Nilsson U, Erratico C, Lucattini L, Haug LS et al. Case Study on Screening Emerging Pollutants in Urine and Nails. Environmental Science and Technology. 2017 Mar 15;51(7):4046-4053. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05661