Cells derived from human long bone appear more differentiated and more actively stimulate osteoclastogenesis compared to alveolar bone-derived cells

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Osteoblasts derived from mouse skulls have increased osteoclastogenic potential compared to long bone osteoblasts when stimulated with 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 (vitD3 ). This indicates that bone cells from specific sites can react differently to biochemical signals, e.g., during inflammation or as emitted by bioactive bone tissue-engineering constructs. Given the high turn-over of alveolar bone, we hypothesized that human alveolar bone-derived osteoblasts have an increased osteogenic and osteoclastogenic potential compared to the osteoblasts derived from long bone. The osteogenic and osteoclastogenic capacity of alveolar bone cells and long bone cells were assessed in the presence and absence of osteotropic agent vitD3 . Both cell types were studied in osteogenesis experiments, using an osteogenic medium, and in osteoclastogenesis experiments by co-culturing osteoblasts with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Both osteogenic and osteoclastic markers were measured. At day 0, long bones seem to have a more late-osteoblastic/preosteocyte-like phenotype compared to the alveolar bone cells as shown by slower proliferation, the higher expression of the matrix molecule Osteopontin (OPN) and the osteocyte-enriched cytoskeletal component Actin alpha 1 (ACTA1). This phenotype was maintained during the osteogenesis assays, where long bone-derived cells still expressed more OPN and ACTA1. Under co-culture conditions with PBMCs, long bone cells also had a higher Tumor necrose factor-alfa (TNF-α) expression and induced the formation of osteoclasts more than alveolar bone cells. Correspondingly, the expression of osteoclast genes dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RankL) was higher in long bone co-cultures. Together, our results indicate that long bone-derived osteoblasts are more active in bone-remodeling processes, especially in osteoclastogenesis, than alveolar bone-derived cells. This indicates that tissue-engineering solutions need to be specifically designed for the site of application, such as defects in long bones vs. the regeneration of alveolar bone after severe periodontitis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5072
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2020


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