Chiral capillary electrophoresis with UV-excited fluorescence detection for the enantioselective analysis of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-derivatized amino acids

Amir Prior, Giulia Coliva, Gerhardus J. de Jong, Govert W. Somsen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The potential of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with ultraviolet (UV)-excited fluorescence detection for sensitive chiral analysis of amino acids (AAs) was investigated. dl-AAs were derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC)-Cl to allow their fluorescence detection and enhance enantioseparation. Fluorescence detection was achieved employing optical fibers, leading UV excitation light (< 300 nm) from a Xe-Hg lamp to the capillary window, and fluorescence emission to a spectrograph equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD). Signal averaging over time and emission wavelength intervals was carried out to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the FMOC-AAs. A background electrolyte (BGE) of 40 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.5), containing 15% isopropanol (v/v), 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 30 mM β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was found optimal for AA chemo- and enantioseparation. Enantioresolutions of 1.0 or higher were achieved for 16 proteinogenic dl-AAs. Limits of detection (LODs) were in the 10–100-nM range (injected concentration) for the d-AA enantiomers, except for FMOC-d-tryptophan (536 nM) which showed intramolecular fluorescence quenching. Linearity (R2 > 0.997) and repeatability for peak height (relative standard deviations (RSDs) < 7.0%; n = 5) and electrophoretic mobility (RSDs < 0.6%; n = 5) of individual AA enantiomers were established for chiral analysis of dl-AA mixtures. The applicability of the method was investigated by the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Next to l-AAs, endogenous levels of d-glutamine and d-aspartic acid could be measured in CSF revealing enantiomeric ratios of 0.35 and 19.6%, respectively. This indicates the method’s potential for the analysis of low concentrations of d-AAs in presence of abundant l-AAs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4979-4990
Number of pages12
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume410
Issue number20
Early online date29 May 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018

Keywords

  • Amino acids
  • Capillary electrophoresis
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Chiral separation
  • Fluorescence detection
  • FMOC derivatization

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