Chlorinated Paraffins in Car Tires Recycled to Rubber Granulates and Playground Tiles

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Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are used in various products to improve their physicochemical characteristics. Due to recycling, CPs may end up in "new" recycled products. In this study we investigated CPs present in end-of-life car tires that are recycled to rubber granulates used on artificial soccer fields, and playground tiles. The -CP(C 10-C 30) concentrations ranged from 1.5 to 67 μg/g in car tires, 13-67 μg/g in rubber granulates, and 16-74 μg/g in playground tiles. MCCPs were the dominant CP group with an average contribution of 72%. LCCPs up to C 30, were detected for the first time in car tires, rubber granulates, and playground tiles. The CPs application in tires is unclear, the low CP concentrations found in this study (<0.007%) could possibly indicate contamination during the manufacturing process. The presence of CPs in the granulates and tiles, in addition to the multiple chemicals already detected, emphasizes the need to further investigate the migration and leaching behavior, in order to assess potential risks of CPs for humans and the environment. The presence of CPs in car tires may be another source of CPs for the environment. The CP volume brought into the environment by tire wear particles (TWP) from car tires in the European Union, is estimated at 2.0-89 tons annually.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7595-7603
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2019


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