This study aimed to monitor PAC availability to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus during 28 days of exposure to spiked sediments, in order to obtain reliable chronic effect concentrations for reproduction. Sediment toxicity tests were performed using three pairs of PAC isomers: two homocyclic compounds (anthracene and phenanthrene), two azaarenes (acridine and phenanthridine), and the two main transformation products of the azaarenes (acridone and phenanthridone). During the experiment available PAC concentrations in pore water (estimated using solid phase microextraction) decreased more than total PAC concentrations in the sediment. Relating effect concentrations to PAC concentrations in pore water and in organisms showed that the two homocyclic compounds caused narcotic effects during chronic exposure, but only one of the four tested heterocyclic PACs caused narcotic effects. The transformation product phenanthridone was not toxic at the tested concentrations (up to 4000 μmol/kg dry sediment), whereas EC50 values for the parent compound phenanthridine and the isomer acridone were below the estimated limit for narcosis, suggesting a specific mode of action. These results demonstrated the unpredictable (isomer) specific toxicity of azaarenes and their transformation products, emphasizing the need of chronic toxicity testing to gain insight into the long-term effects of heterocyclic PACs, which have been overlooked in risk assessment. © 2008 American Chemical Society.
Leon Paumen, M., Stol, P., ter Laak, T. L., Kraak, M. H. S., van Gestel, C. A. M., & Admiraal, W. (2008). Chronic exposure of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs): bioavailability and effects on reproduction. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 3434-3440. https://doi.org/10.1021/es702500t