Objectives Vitamin K plays a pivotal role in the synthesis of Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a calcification inhibitor in vascular tissue. Vascular calcification has become an important predictor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current study was to examine the potential association of circulating desphospho-carboxylated and -uncarboxylated MGP (dp-cMGP and dp-ucMGP), reflecting vitamin K status, with the incidence of cardiovascular events and disease (CVD) in older individuals. Study design The study was conducted in 577 community-dwelling older men and women of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), aged >55 year, who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the data. Main outcome measures Incidence of CVD. Results After a mean follow-up of 5.6 ± 1.2 year, we identified 40 incident cases of CVD. After adjustment for classical confounders and vitamin D status, we observed a more than 2-fold significantly higher risk of CVD for the highest tertile of dp-ucMGP with a HR of 2.69 (95% CI, 1.09-6.62) as compared with the lowest tertile. Plasma dp-cMGP was not associated with the risk of CVD. Conclusions Vitamin K insufficiency, as assessed by high plasma dp-ucMGP concentrations is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease independent of classical risk factors and vitamin D status. Larger epidemiological studies on dp-ucMGP and CVD incidence are needed followed by clinical trials to test whether vitamin K-rich diets will lead to a decreased risk for cardiovascular events. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.