Clinimetrics in rehabilitation medicine, i.e. the field of developing, evaluating and applying measurement instruments, has undergone considerable progress. Despite this progress, however, several issues remain. These include: (i) selection of an instrument out of the wide range available; (ii) using an instrument in a variety of diagnostic groups; (iii) using an instrument in individual patients, as opposed to a group of patients; and (iv) the use of instruments in clinical practice. This paper reviews these issues, as well as current attempts at resolving them. Illustrative examples are given. It is concluded that solutions seem to be available, but considerable research effort is required to make these a reality. Clinimetrics in rehabilitation medicine remains a field with challenging opportunities for research. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd.