Co-creation as a facilitator for Co-regulation in child-robot interaction

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


While interacting with a social robot, children have a need to express themselves and have their expressions acknowledged by the robot. A need that is often unaddressed by the robot, due to its limitations in understanding the expressions of children. To keep the child-robot interaction manageable the robot takes control, undermining children's ability to co-regulate the interaction. Co-regulation is important for having a fulfilling social interaction. We developed a co-creation activity that aims to facilitate more co-regulation. Children are enabled to create sound effects, gestures, and light shows for the robot to use during their conversation. Results from a user study (N = 59 school children, 7-11 y.o.) showed that the co-creation activity successfully facilitated co-regulation by improving children's agency. Co-creation furthermore increases children's acceptance of the robot.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHRI '21 Companion
Subtitle of host publicationCompanion of the 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9781450382908
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021
Event2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2021 - Virtual, Online, United States
Duration: 8 Mar 202111 Mar 2021

Publication series

NameACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction
ISSN (Electronic)2167-2148


Conference2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Online

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is part of the Hero project and is supported by the research program ‘Technology for Oncology’ (grand number 15198), which is financed by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF Kankerbestrijd-ing), the TKI Life Sciences & Health, ASolutions, the Cancer Health Coach, and Wintertuin Literary Agency. The research consortium consists of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Delft University of Technology, Princess Máxima Center, Centrum Wiskunde & In-formatica (CWI), and the University Medical Centers Amsterdam UMC.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 ACM.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Child-robot interaction
  • Co-creation
  • Co-regulation
  • User-study


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