Codeco: A practical notation for controlled English grammars in predictive editors

Tobias Kuhn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


This paper introduces a new grammar notation, called Codeco, designed for controlled natural language (CNL) and predictive editors. Existing grammar frameworks that target either formal or natural languages do not work out particularly well for CNL, especially if they are to be used in predictive editors and if anaphoric references should be resolved in a deterministic way. It is not trivial to build predictive editors that can precisely determine which anaphoric references are possible at a certain position. This paper shows how such complex structures can be represented in Codeco, a novel grammar notation for CNL. Two different parsers have been implemented (one in Prolog and another one in Java) and a large subset of Attempto Controlled English (ACE) has been represented in Codeco. The results show that Codeco is practical, adequate and efficient.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationControlled Natural Language - Second International Workshop, CNL 2010, Revised Papers
Number of pages20
Volume7175 LNAI
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes
Event2nd Workshop on Controlled Natural Language, CNL 2010 - Marettimo Island, Italy
Duration: 13 Sept 201015 Sept 2010

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume7175 LNAI
ISSN (Print)03029743
ISSN (Electronic)16113349


Conference2nd Workshop on Controlled Natural Language, CNL 2010
CityMarettimo Island


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