Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children with ADHD and 13 healthy peers matched for age, gender, and IQ, using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and the Stroop-Colour-Word test. Children with ADHD committed more errors on the FMT, particularly on discrimination of colours along the blue-yellow axis, and were slower on Stroop subtests involving colour naming. However, the latter deficit was accounted for similarly by blue-yellow and red-green discrimination abilities. Blue-yellow colour perception problems in ADHD contribute to but do not fully explain the observed slowed colour naming. © 2005 The Authors Journal compilation © 2006 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.