Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders: findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

Lynn Boschloo, Nicole Vogelzangs, Johannes H Smit, Wim van den Brink, Dick J Veltman, Aartjan T F Beekman, Brenda W J H Penninx

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: This study examines comorbidity of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as well as its risk indicators among anxious and/or depressed persons, also considering temporal sequencing of disorders.

METHODS: Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 2329 persons with lifetime DSM-IV anxiety (social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) and/or depressive (major depressive disorder and dysthymia) disorders and 652 controls. Lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence were established, as well as information about socio-demographic, vulnerability, addiction-related and anxiety/depression-related characteristics. Temporal sequencing of disorders was established retrospectively, using age of onset.

RESULTS: Of persons with combined anxiety/depression 20.3% showed alcohol dependence versus 5.5% of controls. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was similar across groups (± 12%). Independent risk indicators for alcohol dependence among anxious and/or depressed persons were male gender, vulnerability factors (family history of alcohol dependence, family history of anxiety/depression, openness to experience, low conscientiousness, being single, and childhood trauma), addiction-related factors (smoking and illicit drug use) and early anxiety/depression onset. Persons with secondary alcohol dependence were more neurotic, more often single and lonelier, while persons with primary alcohol dependence were more often male and more extravert.

DISCUSSION: Alcohol dependence, but not abuse, is more prevalent in anxious and/or depressed persons. Persons with comorbid alcohol dependence constitute a distinct subgroup of anxious and/or depressed persons, characterized by addiction-related habits and vulnerability. However, considerable variation in characteristics exists depending on temporal sequencing of disorders. This knowledge may improve identification and treatment of those anxious and/or depressed patients who are additionally suffering from alcohol dependence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-242
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume131
Issue number1-3
Early online date19 Jan 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011

Fingerprint

Depressive Disorder
Anxiety Disorders
Netherlands
Alcoholism
Comorbidity
Anxiety
Alcohols
Depression
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Agoraphobia
Panic Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Street Drugs
Age of Onset
Habits
Smoking
Demography

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alcoholism/epidemiology
  • Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Cohort Studies
  • Comorbidity
  • Depressive Disorder/epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interview, Psychological
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Marital Status
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands/epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Young Adult

Cite this

Boschloo, Lynn ; Vogelzangs, Nicole ; Smit, Johannes H ; van den Brink, Wim ; Veltman, Dick J ; Beekman, Aartjan T F ; Penninx, Brenda W J H. / Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders : findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2011 ; Vol. 131, No. 1-3. pp. 233-242.
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Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders : findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). / Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 131, No. 1-3, 06.2011, p. 233-242.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders

T2 - findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

AU - Boschloo, Lynn

AU - Vogelzangs, Nicole

AU - Smit, Johannes H

AU - van den Brink, Wim

AU - Veltman, Dick J

AU - Beekman, Aartjan T F

AU - Penninx, Brenda W J H

N1 - Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PY - 2011/6

Y1 - 2011/6

N2 - INTRODUCTION: This study examines comorbidity of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as well as its risk indicators among anxious and/or depressed persons, also considering temporal sequencing of disorders.METHODS: Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 2329 persons with lifetime DSM-IV anxiety (social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) and/or depressive (major depressive disorder and dysthymia) disorders and 652 controls. Lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence were established, as well as information about socio-demographic, vulnerability, addiction-related and anxiety/depression-related characteristics. Temporal sequencing of disorders was established retrospectively, using age of onset.RESULTS: Of persons with combined anxiety/depression 20.3% showed alcohol dependence versus 5.5% of controls. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was similar across groups (± 12%). Independent risk indicators for alcohol dependence among anxious and/or depressed persons were male gender, vulnerability factors (family history of alcohol dependence, family history of anxiety/depression, openness to experience, low conscientiousness, being single, and childhood trauma), addiction-related factors (smoking and illicit drug use) and early anxiety/depression onset. Persons with secondary alcohol dependence were more neurotic, more often single and lonelier, while persons with primary alcohol dependence were more often male and more extravert.DISCUSSION: Alcohol dependence, but not abuse, is more prevalent in anxious and/or depressed persons. Persons with comorbid alcohol dependence constitute a distinct subgroup of anxious and/or depressed persons, characterized by addiction-related habits and vulnerability. However, considerable variation in characteristics exists depending on temporal sequencing of disorders. This knowledge may improve identification and treatment of those anxious and/or depressed patients who are additionally suffering from alcohol dependence.

AB - INTRODUCTION: This study examines comorbidity of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as well as its risk indicators among anxious and/or depressed persons, also considering temporal sequencing of disorders.METHODS: Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 2329 persons with lifetime DSM-IV anxiety (social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) and/or depressive (major depressive disorder and dysthymia) disorders and 652 controls. Lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence were established, as well as information about socio-demographic, vulnerability, addiction-related and anxiety/depression-related characteristics. Temporal sequencing of disorders was established retrospectively, using age of onset.RESULTS: Of persons with combined anxiety/depression 20.3% showed alcohol dependence versus 5.5% of controls. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was similar across groups (± 12%). Independent risk indicators for alcohol dependence among anxious and/or depressed persons were male gender, vulnerability factors (family history of alcohol dependence, family history of anxiety/depression, openness to experience, low conscientiousness, being single, and childhood trauma), addiction-related factors (smoking and illicit drug use) and early anxiety/depression onset. Persons with secondary alcohol dependence were more neurotic, more often single and lonelier, while persons with primary alcohol dependence were more often male and more extravert.DISCUSSION: Alcohol dependence, but not abuse, is more prevalent in anxious and/or depressed persons. Persons with comorbid alcohol dependence constitute a distinct subgroup of anxious and/or depressed persons, characterized by addiction-related habits and vulnerability. However, considerable variation in characteristics exists depending on temporal sequencing of disorders. This knowledge may improve identification and treatment of those anxious and/or depressed patients who are additionally suffering from alcohol dependence.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Adult

KW - Age Factors

KW - Aged

KW - Alcoholism/epidemiology

KW - Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology

KW - Chi-Square Distribution

KW - Cohort Studies

KW - Comorbidity

KW - Depressive Disorder/epidemiology

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Interview, Psychological

KW - Logistic Models

KW - Male

KW - Marital Status

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Netherlands/epidemiology

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Sex Factors

KW - Young Adult

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2010.12.014

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2010.12.014

M3 - Article

VL - 131

SP - 233

EP - 242

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 0165-0327

IS - 1-3

ER -