Comparative integration context theory: participation and belonging in new diverse European cities

M.R.J. Crul, J. Schneider

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Drawing upon results from the TIES survey on the second generation in
eight European countries the authors propose a new perspective on
integration or assimilation. The proposed comparative integration context
theory argues that participation in social organizations and belonging to
local communities across European cities is strongly dependent on the
integration context. Differences in integration contexts include institutional
arrangements in education, the labour market, housing, religion
and legislation. Differences in the social and political context are
especially important for social and cultural participation and belonging.
The TIES data show high degrees of local involvement in the second
generation and the dwindling centrality of single ethnic belongings - a
reflection of the dramatically changing ethnic and (sub)cultural landscapes
in cities in Europe. The article challenges established notions of
‘newcomers’ and ‘natives’, explores the ‘remaking of the mainstream’ and
argues for the investigation of mobility pathways for a better understanding
of integration or assimilation as on-going processes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1249-1268
Number of pages20
JournalEthnic and Racial Studies
Issue number7
Early online date1 Mar 2010
Publication statusPublished - 2011


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