Recently, Chan and McDermott (2007) found that relative to studying words once, taking an initial test increased recollection, whereas it did not affect familiarity. However, an open question remains what the effect is of testing on recollection and familiarity relative to restudying. We conducted four experiments to address this question. Experiment 1 was a replication of Chan and McDermott's third experiment. In Experiment 2, restudied words were compared with tested words. In Experiment 3 we replicated Experiment 2 with the exception that feedback was provided after each initial-test trial. Finally, in Experiment 4, stronger cues were used during the initial test without feedback. The results showed a recollection advantage of testing over restudying, but only when feedback was given during the test or when stronger cues were employed. Further, recognition decisions were more familiarity based for restudied words than for tested words. © 2011 Hogrefe Publishing.