Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture

Verena Seufert, Navin Ramankutty, Jonathan A. Foley

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Numerous reports have emphasized the need for major changes in the global food system: agriculture must meet the twin challenge of feeding a growing population, with rising demand for meat and high-calorie diets, while simultaneously minimizing its global environmental impacts. Organic farminga system aimed at producing food with minimal harm to ecosystems, animals or humans-is often proposed as a solution. However, critics argue that organic agriculture may have lower yields and would therefore need more land to produce the same amount of food as conventional farms, resulting in more widespread deforestation and biodiversity loss, and thus undermining the environmental benefits of organic practices. Here we use a comprehensive meta-analysis to examine the relative yield performance of organic and conventional farming systems globally. Our analysis of available data shows that, overall, organic yields are typically lower than conventional yields. But these yield differences are highly contextual, depending on system and site characteristics, and range from 5% lower organic yields (rain-fed legumes and perennials on weak-acidic to weak-alkaline soils), 13% lower yields (when best organic practices are used), to 34% lower yields (when the conventional and organic systems are most comparable). Under certain conditions-that is, with good management practices, particular crop types and growing conditions-organic systems can thus nearly match conventional yields, whereas under others it at present cannot. To establish organic agriculture as an important tool in sustainable food production, the factors limiting organic yields need to be more fully understood, alongside assessments of the many social, environmental and economic benefits of organic farming systems.

LanguageEnglish
Pages229-232
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume485
Issue number7397
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 May 2012

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Organic Agriculture
Food
Rain
Practice Management
Biodiversity
Conservation of Natural Resources
Agriculture
Practice Guidelines
Fabaceae
Meat
Ecosystem
Meta-Analysis
Soil
Economics
Diet
Population

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Seufert, Verena ; Ramankutty, Navin ; Foley, Jonathan A. / Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture. In: Nature. 2012 ; Vol. 485, No. 7397. pp. 229-232.
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Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture. / Seufert, Verena; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A.

In: Nature, Vol. 485, No. 7397, 09.05.2012, p. 229-232.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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