The exogenous introduction of a molecular species mixture of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine (BC-PS) has been claimed to improve memory function in subjects suffering from age-associated memory impairment and dementia. However, it has been also reported that oral administration of another molecular species mixture of transphosphatidylated-soybean phosphatidylserine (T-Soy-PS) showed a little effect in older individuals with memory complaints. In this study, a new type of mixture of transphosphatidylated-fish liver phosphatidylserine (T-FL-PS) species, as well as intact molecular species of the two commercial products of T-Soy-PS made in the United States and Europe, were characterized by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, and molecular species of various transphosphatidylated PSs, including T-FL-PS, T-Soy-PS and transphosphatidylated-squid skin phosphatidylserine (T-SS-PS) were then compared with those of BC-PS for the first time. The results show that (i) the presence of a relatively high content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing species (more than 45%) is remarkable in T-FL-PS, (ii) DHA-ether PS species are found only in T-FL-PS, especially the species (about 17%) made from marine fish liver, rather than BC-PS and T-SS-PS, and (iii) DHA species present in both T-FL-PS and T-SS-PS are significantly enriched, compared with those in BC-PS (about 10%) and T-Soy-PS (no DHA species). We conclude that mixtures of T-FL-PS and T-SS-PS species are considered to be qualified alternatives of BC-PS supplement used as brain nutrients. It is expected that intact structural information on molecular species in current and potential transphosphatidylated PS products provided here will be useful in the further study and development of therapeutic roles of the phospholipid at molecular species level. © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.