Upper extremity (UX) movement analysis by means of 3D kinematics has the potential to become an important clinical evaluation method. However, no standardized protocol for clinical application has yet been developed, that includes the whole upper limb. Standardization problems include the lack of a single representative function, the wide range of motion of joints and the complexity of the anatomical structures. A useful protocol would focus on the functional status of the arm and particularly the orientation of the hand. The aim of this work was to develop a standardized measurement method for unconstrained movement analysis of the UX that includes hand orientation, for a set of functional tasks for the UX and obtain normative values. Ten healthy subjects performed four representative activities of daily living (ADL). In addition, six standard active range of motion (ROM) tasks were executed. Joint angles of the wrist, elbow, shoulder and scapula were analyzed throughout each ADL task and minimum/maximum angles were determined from the ROM tasks. Characteristic trajectories were found for the ADL tasks, standard deviations were generally small and ROM results were consistent with the literature. The results of this study could form the normative basis for the development of a 'UX analysis report' equivalent to the 'gait analysis report' and would allow for future comparisons with pediatric and/or pathologic movement patterns. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Andel, C. J., Wolterbeek, N., Doorenbosch, C. A. M., Veeger, H. E. J., & Harlaar, J. (2008). Complete 3D kinematics of upper extremity functional tasks. Gait and Posture, 27(1), 120-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2007.03.002