Computer-Aided psychotherapy for anxiety disorders: A meta-analytic review

P. Cuijpers, I.M. Marks, A. van Straten, K Cavanagh, L. Gega, G. Andersson

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Computer-aided psychotherapy (CP) is said to (1) be as effective as face-to-face psychotherapy, while requiring less therapist time, for anxiety disorder sufferers, (2) speed access to care, and (3) save traveling time. CP may be delivered on stand-alone or Internet-linked computers, palmtop computers, phone-interactive voice response, DVDs, and cell phones. The authors performed a meta-analysis of 23 randomised controlled studies (RCTs) that compared CP with non-CP in anxiety disorders: phobias, n=10; panic disorder/agoraphobia, n=9; PTSD, n=3; obsessive-compulsive disorder, n=1. Overall mean effect size of CP compared with non-CP was 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32). CP and face-to-face psychotherapy did not differ significantly from each other (13 comparisons, d=-0.06). Much caution is needed when interpreting the findings indicating that outcome was unrelated to type of disorder, type of comparison group, mode of CP delivery (Internet, stand-alone PC, palmtop), and recency of the CP system and that effect size decreased when more therapist time was replaced by the computer. Because CP as a whole was as effective as face-to-face psychotherapy, certain forms of CP deserve to be integrated into routine practice. © 2009 Taylor & Francis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-82
Number of pages17
JournalCognitive Behaviour Therapy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009


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