In this edited volume, we explored the contributions that political science as a discipline can offer to the evolving Anthropocene debate. The term Anthropocene denotes a new geological epoch in the Earth’s history in which humans have become the main drivers of planetary-wide changes (Crutzen 2002). Some authors interpret this as good news, pointing to progress as a result of human ingenuity and the endless possibilities of managing the Earth system for the sake of human benefits (e.g., Ellis 2011; DeFries et al. 2012). Others have argued that the notion of the Anthropocene constitutes a wake-up call for humanity to act in the light of scientific evidence which is indicating fundamental and irreversible state shifts in the various interrelated ecosystems of our planet (e.g., Rockström et al. 2009; Steffen et al. 2015). Against this background, we seek for a ‘deep debate’ on the Anthropocene in the sense of providing sound disciplinary insights to an interdisciplinary exchange. We have addressed two fundamental questions in this book: (1) What is the contribution of political science to the Anthropocene debate, e.g., in terms of identified problems, answers and solutions? (2) What are the conceptual and practical implications of the Anthropocene debate for the discipline of political science?.