Concurrent validity and reliability of the Community Balance and Mobility scale in young-older adults

Michaela Weber, Jeanine Van Ancum, Ronny Bergquist, Kristin Taraldsen, Katharina Gordt, A. Stefanie Mikolaizak, Corinna Nerz, Mirjam Pijnappels, Nini H. Jonkman, Andrea B. Maier, Jorunn L. Helbostad, Beatrix Vereijken, Clemens Becker, Michael Schwenk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: With the growing number of young-older adults (baby-boomers), there is an increasing demand for assessment tools specific for this population, which are able to detect subtle balance and mobility deficits. Various balance and mobility tests already exist, but suffer from ceiling effects in higher functioning older adults. A reliable and valid challenging balance and mobility test is critical to determine a young-older adult's balance and mobility performance and to timely initiate preventive interventions. The aim was to evaluate the concurrent validity, inter- and intrarater reliability, internal consistency, and ceiling effects of a challenging balance and mobility scale, the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CBM), in young-older adults aged 60 to 70 years.

METHODS: Fifty-one participants aged 66.4 ± 2.7 years (range, 60-70 years) were assessed with the CBM. The Fullerton Advanced Balance scale (FAB), 3-Meter Tandem Walk (3MTW), 8-level balance scale, Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG), and 7-m habitual gait speed were used to estimate concurrent validity, examined by Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ). Inter- and intrarater reliability were calculated as Intra-class-correlations (ICC), and internal consistency by Cronbach alpha and item-total correlations (ρ). Ceiling effects were determined by obtaining the percentage of participants reaching the highest possible score.

RESULTS: The CBM significantly correlated with the FAB (ρ = 0.75; p < .001), 3MTW errors (ρ = - 0.61; p < .001), 3MTW time (ρ = - 0.35; p = .05), the 8-level balance scale (ρ = 0.35; p < .05), the TUG (ρ = - 0.42; p < .01), and 7-m habitual gait speed (ρ = 0.46, p < .001). Inter- (ICC2,k = 0.97), intrarater reliability (ICC3,k = 1.00) were excellent, and internal consistency (α = 0.88; ρ = 0.28-0.81) was good to satisfactory. The CBM did not show ceiling effects in contrast to other scales.

CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent validity of the CBM was good when compared to the FAB and moderate to good when compared to other measures of balance and mobility. Based on this study, the CBM can be recommended to measure balance and mobility performance in the specific population of young-older adults.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial number: ISRCTN37750605 . (Registered on 21/04/2016).

Original languageEnglish
Article number156
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Geriatrics
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2018


In this study, we aimed to examine the concurrent validity and reliability of the CBM in community-dwelling healthy young-older adults (60 to 70 years). The evaluation was performed as preparatory part of the European Commission funded project PreventIT (Horizon 2020 grant no 689238), which aims to develop a lifestyle-integrated training intervention to prevent functional decline in young-older adults. The authors gratefully acknowledge L. Schaaf (BSc), C. Barz (MSc) and I. Huisman (BSc) for their support in carrying out the assessments, and the financial support by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the funding programme Open Access Publishing, by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts and by Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. This study was supported by a doctoral scholarship from the Klaus Tschira Foundation (KTS), and PreventIT which received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, under grant agreement No. 689238. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the KTS or European Union.

FundersFunder number
Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme689238
British Society of Criminology
European Commission
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
Universität Heidelberg
Klaus Tschira Stiftung


    • Aging
    • Assessment
    • Balance
    • Measurement properties
    • Mobility
    • Older adults
    • Physical performance


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