Control of the lateral abdominal muscles during walking.

H. Hu, O.G. Meijer, P.W. Hodges, S.M. Bruijn, R.L.M. Strijers, P.W.B. Nanayakkara, B.J. van Royen, W.H. Wu, C. Xia, J.H. van Dieen

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Abstract

    Transversus abdominis (TA), obliquus internus (OI), and obliquus externus (OE) are involved in multiple functions: breathing, control of trunk orientation, and stabilization of the pelvis and spine. How these functions are coordinated has received limited attention. We studied electromyographic (EMG) activity of right-sided muscles and 3-dimensional moments during treadmill walking at six different speeds (1.4-5.4. km/h) in sixteen healthy young women. PCA revealed time series of trunk moments to be consistent across speeds and subjects though somewhat less in the sagittal plane. All three muscles were active during ≥075% of the stride cycle, indicative of a stabilizing function. Clear phasic modulations were observed, with TA more active during ipsilateral, and OE during contralateral swing, while OI activity was largely symmetrical. Fourier analysis revealed four main frequencies in muscle activity: respiration, stride frequency, step frequency, and a triphasic pattern. With increasing speed, the absolute power of all frequencies remained constant or increased; the relative power of respiration and stride-related activities decreased, while that of step-related activity and the triphasic pattern increased. Effects of speed were gradual, and EMG linear envelopes had considerable common variance (>70%) across speeds within subjects, suggesting that the same functions were performed at all speeds. Maximum cross-correlations between moments and muscle activity were 0.2-0.6, and further analyses in the time domain revealed both simultaneous and consecutive task execution. To deal with conflicting constraints, the activity of the three muscles was clearly coordinated, with co-contraction of antagonists to offset unwanted mechanical side-effects of each individual muscle. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages880-896
    JournalHuman Movement Science
    Volume31
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2012

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    Abdominal Muscles
    Walking
    Muscles
    Respiration
    Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis
    Fourier Analysis
    Pelvis
    Spine

    Cite this

    Hu, H. ; Meijer, O.G. ; Hodges, P.W. ; Bruijn, S.M. ; Strijers, R.L.M. ; Nanayakkara, P.W.B. ; van Royen, B.J. ; Wu, W.H. ; Xia, C. ; van Dieen, J.H. / Control of the lateral abdominal muscles during walking. In: Human Movement Science. 2012 ; Vol. 31, No. 4. pp. 880-896.
    @article{370ecaac47e940228eaa45198fa98ec5,
    title = "Control of the lateral abdominal muscles during walking.",
    abstract = "Transversus abdominis (TA), obliquus internus (OI), and obliquus externus (OE) are involved in multiple functions: breathing, control of trunk orientation, and stabilization of the pelvis and spine. How these functions are coordinated has received limited attention. We studied electromyographic (EMG) activity of right-sided muscles and 3-dimensional moments during treadmill walking at six different speeds (1.4-5.4. km/h) in sixteen healthy young women. PCA revealed time series of trunk moments to be consistent across speeds and subjects though somewhat less in the sagittal plane. All three muscles were active during ≥075{\%} of the stride cycle, indicative of a stabilizing function. Clear phasic modulations were observed, with TA more active during ipsilateral, and OE during contralateral swing, while OI activity was largely symmetrical. Fourier analysis revealed four main frequencies in muscle activity: respiration, stride frequency, step frequency, and a triphasic pattern. With increasing speed, the absolute power of all frequencies remained constant or increased; the relative power of respiration and stride-related activities decreased, while that of step-related activity and the triphasic pattern increased. Effects of speed were gradual, and EMG linear envelopes had considerable common variance (>70{\%}) across speeds within subjects, suggesting that the same functions were performed at all speeds. Maximum cross-correlations between moments and muscle activity were 0.2-0.6, and further analyses in the time domain revealed both simultaneous and consecutive task execution. To deal with conflicting constraints, the activity of the three muscles was clearly coordinated, with co-contraction of antagonists to offset unwanted mechanical side-effects of each individual muscle. {\circledC} 2011 Elsevier B.V.",
    author = "H. Hu and O.G. Meijer and P.W. Hodges and S.M. Bruijn and R.L.M. Strijers and P.W.B. Nanayakkara and {van Royen}, B.J. and W.H. Wu and C. Xia and {van Dieen}, J.H.",
    year = "2012",
    doi = "10.1016/j.humov.2011.09.002",
    language = "English",
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    Hu, H, Meijer, OG, Hodges, PW, Bruijn, SM, Strijers, RLM, Nanayakkara, PWB, van Royen, BJ, Wu, WH, Xia, C & van Dieen, JH 2012, 'Control of the lateral abdominal muscles during walking.', Human Movement Science, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 880-896. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2011.09.002

    Control of the lateral abdominal muscles during walking. / Hu, H.; Meijer, O.G.; Hodges, P.W.; Bruijn, S.M.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Nanayakkara, P.W.B.; van Royen, B.J.; Wu, W.H.; Xia, C.; van Dieen, J.H.

    In: Human Movement Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, p. 880-896.

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    AU - Hu, H.

    AU - Meijer, O.G.

    AU - Hodges, P.W.

    AU - Bruijn, S.M.

    AU - Strijers, R.L.M.

    AU - Nanayakkara, P.W.B.

    AU - van Royen, B.J.

    AU - Wu, W.H.

    AU - Xia, C.

    AU - van Dieen, J.H.

    PY - 2012

    Y1 - 2012

    N2 - Transversus abdominis (TA), obliquus internus (OI), and obliquus externus (OE) are involved in multiple functions: breathing, control of trunk orientation, and stabilization of the pelvis and spine. How these functions are coordinated has received limited attention. We studied electromyographic (EMG) activity of right-sided muscles and 3-dimensional moments during treadmill walking at six different speeds (1.4-5.4. km/h) in sixteen healthy young women. PCA revealed time series of trunk moments to be consistent across speeds and subjects though somewhat less in the sagittal plane. All three muscles were active during ≥075% of the stride cycle, indicative of a stabilizing function. Clear phasic modulations were observed, with TA more active during ipsilateral, and OE during contralateral swing, while OI activity was largely symmetrical. Fourier analysis revealed four main frequencies in muscle activity: respiration, stride frequency, step frequency, and a triphasic pattern. With increasing speed, the absolute power of all frequencies remained constant or increased; the relative power of respiration and stride-related activities decreased, while that of step-related activity and the triphasic pattern increased. Effects of speed were gradual, and EMG linear envelopes had considerable common variance (>70%) across speeds within subjects, suggesting that the same functions were performed at all speeds. Maximum cross-correlations between moments and muscle activity were 0.2-0.6, and further analyses in the time domain revealed both simultaneous and consecutive task execution. To deal with conflicting constraints, the activity of the three muscles was clearly coordinated, with co-contraction of antagonists to offset unwanted mechanical side-effects of each individual muscle. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

    AB - Transversus abdominis (TA), obliquus internus (OI), and obliquus externus (OE) are involved in multiple functions: breathing, control of trunk orientation, and stabilization of the pelvis and spine. How these functions are coordinated has received limited attention. We studied electromyographic (EMG) activity of right-sided muscles and 3-dimensional moments during treadmill walking at six different speeds (1.4-5.4. km/h) in sixteen healthy young women. PCA revealed time series of trunk moments to be consistent across speeds and subjects though somewhat less in the sagittal plane. All three muscles were active during ≥075% of the stride cycle, indicative of a stabilizing function. Clear phasic modulations were observed, with TA more active during ipsilateral, and OE during contralateral swing, while OI activity was largely symmetrical. Fourier analysis revealed four main frequencies in muscle activity: respiration, stride frequency, step frequency, and a triphasic pattern. With increasing speed, the absolute power of all frequencies remained constant or increased; the relative power of respiration and stride-related activities decreased, while that of step-related activity and the triphasic pattern increased. Effects of speed were gradual, and EMG linear envelopes had considerable common variance (>70%) across speeds within subjects, suggesting that the same functions were performed at all speeds. Maximum cross-correlations between moments and muscle activity were 0.2-0.6, and further analyses in the time domain revealed both simultaneous and consecutive task execution. To deal with conflicting constraints, the activity of the three muscles was clearly coordinated, with co-contraction of antagonists to offset unwanted mechanical side-effects of each individual muscle. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

    U2 - 10.1016/j.humov.2011.09.002

    DO - 10.1016/j.humov.2011.09.002

    M3 - Article

    VL - 31

    SP - 880

    EP - 896

    JO - Human Movement Science

    T2 - Human Movement Science

    JF - Human Movement Science

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    ER -