Coping with Coastal Change

Robert J. Nichols*, Marcel J.F. Stive, Richard S.J. Tol

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


This chapter focuses on how to cope with coastal change and its implications. There are two major types of response: mitigation representing source control of drivers, such as greenhouse gas emissions and groundwater withdrawal, and adaptation referring to behavioral changes that range from individual actions to collective coastal management policy, such as upgraded defence systems, warning systems and land management approaches. Coping with coastal change involves analysis of all the drivers of change. All coping responses need to be consistent with wider societal and development objectives, and hence require implementation within an integrated coastal management philosophy. Proactive adaptation plans are already being formulated for urban areas such as London, the Netherlands and Ho Chi Min City. Some of the major adaptation challenges are in many developing countries, reflecting a large adaptation deficit; deltaic areas and small islands are the most vulnerable settings.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCoastal Environments and Global Change
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9781119117261
ISBN (Print)9780470656594
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Coastal change
  • Coastal management policy
  • Land managemmt approaches
  • Upgraded defecnce systems
  • Urban areas
  • Warning systems


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