In order to evaluate loading methods and the dose dependency of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in ectopic bone formation, an osteoinductive material consisting of commercially available coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA) was coated with a layer of biomimetic calcium phosphate (BioCaP) containing BMP-2 in different ways. Eight groups—each containing samples of 0.25 g CHA—were formed and coated with, respectively, BioCaP with internally incorporated BMP-2 in concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 µg per sample, and the two control groups with BioCaP only and BioCaP with 20 µg of adsorbed BMP-2 per sample. The samples were implanted subcutaneously in 27 male Wistar rats. The histological results show that there is no bone formation in the group in which no BMP-2 was included. All samples with BioCaP containing BMP-2 show bone formation. The group with 20 µg of adsorbed BMP-2 per sample shows the least bone formation. Coating-incorporated BMP-2 is more efficient in inducing bone formation than adsorbed BMP-2. The group with 5 µg of coating-incorporated BMP-2 per sample shows the most bone formation. Increasing the amount of coating-incorporated BMP-2 up to 60 µg does not improve ectopic bone formation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by Uijlenbroek & Partners, dentists. This project was practically supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (LQ19H280008) and Shandong Taishan Scholar Program to Y.L.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Biomimetic calcium phosphate
- Bone morphogenetic protein-2
- Coralline hydroxyapatite
- Ectopic bone formation