Correspondence in pictorial space

Jan J. Koenderink*, Astrid M L Kappers, Frank E. Pollick, Mitsuo Kawato

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


We have investigated psychophysically determined image correspondences between pairs of photographs of a single three-dimensional (3-D) object in various poses. These correspondences were obtained by presenting the pictures simultaneously, side by side, and letting the subject match a marker in one picture with a marker (under manual control) in the other picture. Between poses, the object was rotated about a fixed vertical axis; thus, the shifts of the veridical correspondences (with respect to the surface of the object) were very nearly horizontal. In fact, the subjects produced appreciable scatter in both horizontal and vertical directions. The scatter in repeated sessions and between data depends on the local (landmarks) and global (interpolation) structure of the pictures. Since the object was fairly smooth (white semigloss finish) and nontextured, the only way to establish the correspondence is by way of the "pictorial relief." The relief is some largely unknown function of the image structure and the observer. Apparently, more immediate entities (e.g., the shading or the contour) cannot be used as such, since they vary with the pose. We compare these data with results obtained with a surface attitude probe on a single picture. We studied various measures of consistency both within a single method and between methods. We found that subjects were confident in establishing correspondences, but results scattered appreciably in a way that depended on both global and local image structure. Correspondence results for various pose angles were mutually very consistent, but only to a minor extent with results of attitude measurements. The main finding was that subjects could establish correspondence on the basis of their 3-D interpretation (pictorial relief), even if the 2-D graytone distributions are quite different.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)813-827
Number of pages15
JournalPerception & Psychophysics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1997


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