Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines

Idsart Kingma, Iris Busscher, Albert J. van der Veen, Gijsbertus J. Verkerke, Albert G. Veldhuizen, Jasper Homminga, Jaap H. van Dieën

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing coupled motions in multiple spine sections in vitro, before and after removal of posterior elements. Six elderly human and 6 young porcine spines were sectioned in four segments (high thoracic, mid thoracic, low thoracic and lumbar), each consisting of four vertebrae and three intervertebral discs. Segments were loaded along each of the three axes, and three-dimensional rotations of the middle segment were quantified. Subsequently, posterior elements were removed and the protocol was repeated. To avoid mixed loading between Axial Rotation (AR) and Lateral Bending (LB), in contrast to other studies, local axes at the vertebrae were defined as aligned with the loading device prior to each load application.Expressed as a percentage of motion in the loaded direction, coupled motions were on average larger in human (22.7%, SD = 2.2%) than in porcine (11.9%, SD = 1.2%) spines (p < .001). Largest coupled motions were obtained in AR loading of the lumbar spine segments, with mean magnitudes averaged over coupling axes for human L2-L3 joints of 48.9% (SD = 13.2%), including somewhat more LB (56.4%, SD = 18.6) than FE (41.4%, SD = 14.1%) coupling. For porcine L3-L4 joints average coupling in AR loading was 29.3% (SD = 8.2%). In human segments removal of posterior elements only had substantial effects in the lumbar spine segments, where posterior element removal decreased coupled motion during AR loading, averaged over LB and FE coupling, from 48.9% (SD = 13.2%) to 27.7% (SD = 6.1%), mainly through increased motion in the loaded direction.The present results indicate that coupled motions were largest in the lumbar spine. In human spines, posterior elements only contributed to coupled motions in lumbar axial rotation loading.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-58
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Volume21
Issue number70
Early online date6 Dec 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2018

Fingerprint

Spine
Swine
Thorax
Weight-Bearing
Joints
Zygapophyseal Joint
Intervertebral Disc
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • Arthrokinematics
  • Facet joints
  • Lumbar spine
  • Thoracic spine

Cite this

Kingma, I., Busscher, I., van der Veen, A. J., Verkerke, G. J., Veldhuizen, A. G., Homminga, J., & van Dieën, J. H. (2018). Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines. Journal of Biomechanics, 21(70), 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.11.034
Kingma, Idsart ; Busscher, Iris ; van der Veen, Albert J. ; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J. ; Veldhuizen, Albert G. ; Homminga, Jasper ; van Dieën, Jaap H. / Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines. In: Journal of Biomechanics. 2018 ; Vol. 21, No. 70. pp. 51-58.
@article{aece17deb38d484789f37d8916f2cbd0,
title = "Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines",
abstract = "Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing coupled motions in multiple spine sections in vitro, before and after removal of posterior elements. Six elderly human and 6 young porcine spines were sectioned in four segments (high thoracic, mid thoracic, low thoracic and lumbar), each consisting of four vertebrae and three intervertebral discs. Segments were loaded along each of the three axes, and three-dimensional rotations of the middle segment were quantified. Subsequently, posterior elements were removed and the protocol was repeated. To avoid mixed loading between Axial Rotation (AR) and Lateral Bending (LB), in contrast to other studies, local axes at the vertebrae were defined as aligned with the loading device prior to each load application.Expressed as a percentage of motion in the loaded direction, coupled motions were on average larger in human (22.7{\%}, SD = 2.2{\%}) than in porcine (11.9{\%}, SD = 1.2{\%}) spines (p < .001). Largest coupled motions were obtained in AR loading of the lumbar spine segments, with mean magnitudes averaged over coupling axes for human L2-L3 joints of 48.9{\%} (SD = 13.2{\%}), including somewhat more LB (56.4{\%}, SD = 18.6) than FE (41.4{\%}, SD = 14.1{\%}) coupling. For porcine L3-L4 joints average coupling in AR loading was 29.3{\%} (SD = 8.2{\%}). In human segments removal of posterior elements only had substantial effects in the lumbar spine segments, where posterior element removal decreased coupled motion during AR loading, averaged over LB and FE coupling, from 48.9{\%} (SD = 13.2{\%}) to 27.7{\%} (SD = 6.1{\%}), mainly through increased motion in the loaded direction.The present results indicate that coupled motions were largest in the lumbar spine. In human spines, posterior elements only contributed to coupled motions in lumbar axial rotation loading.",
keywords = "Arthrokinematics, Facet joints, Lumbar spine, Thoracic spine",
author = "Idsart Kingma and Iris Busscher and {van der Veen}, {Albert J.} and Verkerke, {Gijsbertus J.} and Veldhuizen, {Albert G.} and Jasper Homminga and {van Die{\"e}n}, {Jaap H.}",
year = "2018",
month = "3",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.11.034",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "51--58",
journal = "Journal of Biomechanics",
issn = "0021-9290",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "70",

}

Kingma, I, Busscher, I, van der Veen, AJ, Verkerke, GJ, Veldhuizen, AG, Homminga, J & van Dieën, JH 2018, 'Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines' Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 21, no. 70, pp. 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.11.034

Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines. / Kingma, Idsart; Busscher, Iris; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Homminga, Jasper; van Dieën, Jaap H.

In: Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 21, No. 70, 21.03.2018, p. 51-58.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines

AU - Kingma, Idsart

AU - Busscher, Iris

AU - van der Veen, Albert J.

AU - Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

AU - Veldhuizen, Albert G.

AU - Homminga, Jasper

AU - van Dieën, Jaap H.

PY - 2018/3/21

Y1 - 2018/3/21

N2 - Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing coupled motions in multiple spine sections in vitro, before and after removal of posterior elements. Six elderly human and 6 young porcine spines were sectioned in four segments (high thoracic, mid thoracic, low thoracic and lumbar), each consisting of four vertebrae and three intervertebral discs. Segments were loaded along each of the three axes, and three-dimensional rotations of the middle segment were quantified. Subsequently, posterior elements were removed and the protocol was repeated. To avoid mixed loading between Axial Rotation (AR) and Lateral Bending (LB), in contrast to other studies, local axes at the vertebrae were defined as aligned with the loading device prior to each load application.Expressed as a percentage of motion in the loaded direction, coupled motions were on average larger in human (22.7%, SD = 2.2%) than in porcine (11.9%, SD = 1.2%) spines (p < .001). Largest coupled motions were obtained in AR loading of the lumbar spine segments, with mean magnitudes averaged over coupling axes for human L2-L3 joints of 48.9% (SD = 13.2%), including somewhat more LB (56.4%, SD = 18.6) than FE (41.4%, SD = 14.1%) coupling. For porcine L3-L4 joints average coupling in AR loading was 29.3% (SD = 8.2%). In human segments removal of posterior elements only had substantial effects in the lumbar spine segments, where posterior element removal decreased coupled motion during AR loading, averaged over LB and FE coupling, from 48.9% (SD = 13.2%) to 27.7% (SD = 6.1%), mainly through increased motion in the loaded direction.The present results indicate that coupled motions were largest in the lumbar spine. In human spines, posterior elements only contributed to coupled motions in lumbar axial rotation loading.

AB - Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing coupled motions in multiple spine sections in vitro, before and after removal of posterior elements. Six elderly human and 6 young porcine spines were sectioned in four segments (high thoracic, mid thoracic, low thoracic and lumbar), each consisting of four vertebrae and three intervertebral discs. Segments were loaded along each of the three axes, and three-dimensional rotations of the middle segment were quantified. Subsequently, posterior elements were removed and the protocol was repeated. To avoid mixed loading between Axial Rotation (AR) and Lateral Bending (LB), in contrast to other studies, local axes at the vertebrae were defined as aligned with the loading device prior to each load application.Expressed as a percentage of motion in the loaded direction, coupled motions were on average larger in human (22.7%, SD = 2.2%) than in porcine (11.9%, SD = 1.2%) spines (p < .001). Largest coupled motions were obtained in AR loading of the lumbar spine segments, with mean magnitudes averaged over coupling axes for human L2-L3 joints of 48.9% (SD = 13.2%), including somewhat more LB (56.4%, SD = 18.6) than FE (41.4%, SD = 14.1%) coupling. For porcine L3-L4 joints average coupling in AR loading was 29.3% (SD = 8.2%). In human segments removal of posterior elements only had substantial effects in the lumbar spine segments, where posterior element removal decreased coupled motion during AR loading, averaged over LB and FE coupling, from 48.9% (SD = 13.2%) to 27.7% (SD = 6.1%), mainly through increased motion in the loaded direction.The present results indicate that coupled motions were largest in the lumbar spine. In human spines, posterior elements only contributed to coupled motions in lumbar axial rotation loading.

KW - Arthrokinematics

KW - Facet joints

KW - Lumbar spine

KW - Thoracic spine

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85037719799&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85037719799&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.11.034

DO - 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.11.034

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 51

EP - 58

JO - Journal of Biomechanics

JF - Journal of Biomechanics

SN - 0021-9290

IS - 70

ER -

Kingma I, Busscher I, van der Veen AJ, Verkerke GJ, Veldhuizen AG, Homminga J et al. Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines. Journal of Biomechanics. 2018 Mar 21;21(70):51-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.11.034