Coupling of biological sample handling and capillary electrophoresis.

J.R. Veraart, H. Lingeman, U.A.T. Brinkman

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The analysis of biological samples (e.g., blood, urine, saliva, tissue homogenates) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) requires efficient sample preparation (i.e., concentration and clean-up) procedures to remove interfering solutes (endogenous/exogenous and/or low-/high-molecular-mass), (in)organic salts and particulate matter. The sample preparation modules can be coupled with CE either off-line (manual), at-line (robotic interface), on-line (coupling via a transfer line) or in-line (complete integration between sample preparation and separation system). Sample preparation systems reported in the literature are based on chromatographic, electrophoretic or membrane-based procedures. The combination of automated sample preparation and CE is especially useful if complex samples have to be analyzed and helps to improve both selectivity and sensitivity. In this review, the different modes of solid-phase (micro-) extraction will be discussed and an overview of the potential of chromatographic, electrophoretic (e.g., isotachophoresis, sample stacking) and membrane-based procedures will be given. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-514
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Publication statusPublished - 1999


Dive into the research topics of 'Coupling of biological sample handling and capillary electrophoresis.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this