On social media, new forms of communication arise rapidly, many of which are intense, dispersed, and create new communities at a global scale. Such communities can act as distinct information bubbles with their own perspective on the world, and it is difficult for people to find and monitor all these perspectives and relate the different claims made. Within this digital jungle of perspectives on truth, it is difficult to make informed decisions on important things like vaccinations, democracy, and climate change. Understanding and modeling this phenomenon in its full complexity requires an interdisciplinary approach, utilizing the ample data provided by digital communication to offer new insights and opportunities. This interdisciplinary book gives a comprehensive view on social media communication, the different forms it takes, the impact and the technology used to mine it, and defines the roadmap to a more transparent Web.