Creating and Validating a Shortened Version of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale for Application in People Who Are 61 to 70 Years of Age

Katharina Gordt, A Stefanie Mikolaizak, Kristin Taraldsen, Ronny Bergquist, Jeanine M Van Ancum, Corinna Nerz, Mirjam Pijnappels, Andrea B Maier, Jorunn L Helbostad, Beatrix Vereijken, Clemens Becker, Michael Schwenk

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Community Balance & Mobility Scale (CBM) was shown to be reliable and valid for detecting subtle balance and mobility deficits in people who are 61 to 70 years of age. However, item redundancy and assessment time call for a shortened version.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to create and validate a shortened version of the CBM (s-CBM) without detectable loss of psychometric properties.

DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.

METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis with data from 189 young seniors (66.3±2.5, 61-70 years) was used to create the s-CBM. Sixty-one young seniors (66.5±2.6, 61-70 years) were recruited to assess construct validity (Pearson correlation coefficient) by comparing the CBM-versions with Fullerton Advance Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go, habitual and fast gait speed, 8 Level Balance Scale, 3 meter tandem walk, and 30 seconds chair stand test. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), ceiling effects, and discriminant validity (area under the curve (AUC)) between fallers and non-fallers, and self-reported high and low function (Late-Life Function & Disability Index) and balance confidence (Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale), respectively, were calculated.

RESULTS: The s-CBM, consisting of 4 items, correlated excellent with the CBM (r = 0.97). Correlations between s-CBM and other assessments (r = 0.07-0.72), and CBM and other assessments (r = 0.06-0.80) were statistically comparable in 90% of the correlations. Cronbach's alpha was.84 for the s-CBM, and.87 for the CBM. No CBM-version showed ceiling effects. Discriminative ability of the s-CBM was statistically comparable to the CBM (AUC = 0.66-0.75 vs AUC = 0.65-0.79).

LIMITATIONS: Longitudinal studies with larger samples should confirm the results and assess the responsiveness for detecting changes over time.

CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties of the s-CBM were similar to those of the CBM. The s-CBM can be recommended as a valid and quick balance and mobility assessment in young seniors.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical Therapy
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Oct 2019

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Area Under Curve
Psychometrics
Aptitude
Statistical Factor Analysis
Longitudinal Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Walking Speed

Bibliographical note

© American Physical Therapy Association 2019. All rights reserved. For permission, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Cite this

Gordt, Katharina ; Mikolaizak, A Stefanie ; Taraldsen, Kristin ; Bergquist, Ronny ; Van Ancum, Jeanine M ; Nerz, Corinna ; Pijnappels, Mirjam ; Maier, Andrea B ; Helbostad, Jorunn L ; Vereijken, Beatrix ; Becker, Clemens ; Schwenk, Michael. / Creating and Validating a Shortened Version of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale for Application in People Who Are 61 to 70 Years of Age. In: Physical Therapy. 2019.
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title = "Creating and Validating a Shortened Version of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale for Application in People Who Are 61 to 70 Years of Age",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: The Community Balance & Mobility Scale (CBM) was shown to be reliable and valid for detecting subtle balance and mobility deficits in people who are 61 to 70 years of age. However, item redundancy and assessment time call for a shortened version.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to create and validate a shortened version of the CBM (s-CBM) without detectable loss of psychometric properties.DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis with data from 189 young seniors (66.3±2.5, 61-70 years) was used to create the s-CBM. Sixty-one young seniors (66.5±2.6, 61-70 years) were recruited to assess construct validity (Pearson correlation coefficient) by comparing the CBM-versions with Fullerton Advance Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go, habitual and fast gait speed, 8 Level Balance Scale, 3 meter tandem walk, and 30 seconds chair stand test. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), ceiling effects, and discriminant validity (area under the curve (AUC)) between fallers and non-fallers, and self-reported high and low function (Late-Life Function & Disability Index) and balance confidence (Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale), respectively, were calculated.RESULTS: The s-CBM, consisting of 4 items, correlated excellent with the CBM (r = 0.97). Correlations between s-CBM and other assessments (r = 0.07-0.72), and CBM and other assessments (r = 0.06-0.80) were statistically comparable in 90{\%} of the correlations. Cronbach's alpha was.84 for the s-CBM, and.87 for the CBM. No CBM-version showed ceiling effects. Discriminative ability of the s-CBM was statistically comparable to the CBM (AUC = 0.66-0.75 vs AUC = 0.65-0.79).LIMITATIONS: Longitudinal studies with larger samples should confirm the results and assess the responsiveness for detecting changes over time.CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties of the s-CBM were similar to those of the CBM. The s-CBM can be recommended as a valid and quick balance and mobility assessment in young seniors.",
author = "Katharina Gordt and Mikolaizak, {A Stefanie} and Kristin Taraldsen and Ronny Bergquist and {Van Ancum}, {Jeanine M} and Corinna Nerz and Mirjam Pijnappels and Maier, {Andrea B} and Helbostad, {Jorunn L} and Beatrix Vereijken and Clemens Becker and Michael Schwenk",
note = "{\circledC} American Physical Therapy Association 2019. All rights reserved. For permission, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
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doi = "10.1093/ptj/pzz132",
language = "English",
journal = "Physical Therapy",
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Creating and Validating a Shortened Version of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale for Application in People Who Are 61 to 70 Years of Age. / Gordt, Katharina; Mikolaizak, A Stefanie; Taraldsen, Kristin; Bergquist, Ronny; Van Ancum, Jeanine M; Nerz, Corinna; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Maier, Andrea B; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Schwenk, Michael.

In: Physical Therapy, 03.10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Creating and Validating a Shortened Version of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale for Application in People Who Are 61 to 70 Years of Age

AU - Gordt, Katharina

AU - Mikolaizak, A Stefanie

AU - Taraldsen, Kristin

AU - Bergquist, Ronny

AU - Van Ancum, Jeanine M

AU - Nerz, Corinna

AU - Pijnappels, Mirjam

AU - Maier, Andrea B

AU - Helbostad, Jorunn L

AU - Vereijken, Beatrix

AU - Becker, Clemens

AU - Schwenk, Michael

N1 - © American Physical Therapy Association 2019. All rights reserved. For permission, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PY - 2019/10/3

Y1 - 2019/10/3

N2 - BACKGROUND: The Community Balance & Mobility Scale (CBM) was shown to be reliable and valid for detecting subtle balance and mobility deficits in people who are 61 to 70 years of age. However, item redundancy and assessment time call for a shortened version.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to create and validate a shortened version of the CBM (s-CBM) without detectable loss of psychometric properties.DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis with data from 189 young seniors (66.3±2.5, 61-70 years) was used to create the s-CBM. Sixty-one young seniors (66.5±2.6, 61-70 years) were recruited to assess construct validity (Pearson correlation coefficient) by comparing the CBM-versions with Fullerton Advance Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go, habitual and fast gait speed, 8 Level Balance Scale, 3 meter tandem walk, and 30 seconds chair stand test. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), ceiling effects, and discriminant validity (area under the curve (AUC)) between fallers and non-fallers, and self-reported high and low function (Late-Life Function & Disability Index) and balance confidence (Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale), respectively, were calculated.RESULTS: The s-CBM, consisting of 4 items, correlated excellent with the CBM (r = 0.97). Correlations between s-CBM and other assessments (r = 0.07-0.72), and CBM and other assessments (r = 0.06-0.80) were statistically comparable in 90% of the correlations. Cronbach's alpha was.84 for the s-CBM, and.87 for the CBM. No CBM-version showed ceiling effects. Discriminative ability of the s-CBM was statistically comparable to the CBM (AUC = 0.66-0.75 vs AUC = 0.65-0.79).LIMITATIONS: Longitudinal studies with larger samples should confirm the results and assess the responsiveness for detecting changes over time.CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties of the s-CBM were similar to those of the CBM. The s-CBM can be recommended as a valid and quick balance and mobility assessment in young seniors.

AB - BACKGROUND: The Community Balance & Mobility Scale (CBM) was shown to be reliable and valid for detecting subtle balance and mobility deficits in people who are 61 to 70 years of age. However, item redundancy and assessment time call for a shortened version.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to create and validate a shortened version of the CBM (s-CBM) without detectable loss of psychometric properties.DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis with data from 189 young seniors (66.3±2.5, 61-70 years) was used to create the s-CBM. Sixty-one young seniors (66.5±2.6, 61-70 years) were recruited to assess construct validity (Pearson correlation coefficient) by comparing the CBM-versions with Fullerton Advance Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go, habitual and fast gait speed, 8 Level Balance Scale, 3 meter tandem walk, and 30 seconds chair stand test. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), ceiling effects, and discriminant validity (area under the curve (AUC)) between fallers and non-fallers, and self-reported high and low function (Late-Life Function & Disability Index) and balance confidence (Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale), respectively, were calculated.RESULTS: The s-CBM, consisting of 4 items, correlated excellent with the CBM (r = 0.97). Correlations between s-CBM and other assessments (r = 0.07-0.72), and CBM and other assessments (r = 0.06-0.80) were statistically comparable in 90% of the correlations. Cronbach's alpha was.84 for the s-CBM, and.87 for the CBM. No CBM-version showed ceiling effects. Discriminative ability of the s-CBM was statistically comparable to the CBM (AUC = 0.66-0.75 vs AUC = 0.65-0.79).LIMITATIONS: Longitudinal studies with larger samples should confirm the results and assess the responsiveness for detecting changes over time.CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties of the s-CBM were similar to those of the CBM. The s-CBM can be recommended as a valid and quick balance and mobility assessment in young seniors.

U2 - 10.1093/ptj/pzz132

DO - 10.1093/ptj/pzz132

M3 - Article

JO - Physical Therapy

JF - Physical Therapy

SN - 0031-9023

ER -