A dentist is expected to be able to recognise and treat pain originating from the teeth. When dealing with short-term, acute pain, the cause can sometimes be found quickly, while this can be much harder in the case of chronic pain. Especially in this latter category, one should be even more careful in diagnostics and choose reversible treatments when possible. A focused anamnesis, a pain journal and trial local anaesthesia can help to identify the suspected cause of the pain. Careful extra- and intraoral examination is needed to reach a proper diagnosis. X-ray examination may confirm this diagnosis. Odontogenic pain can be caused by an infection of the pulp or by a periodontal or pericoronal disease. The treatment of the pain may – depending on the cause – consist of an endodontic or periodontal treatment, or extraction of the tooth. In the treatment of orofacial pain of odontogenic origin, the aim is to find and treat the cause of the pain. If this cause is found, proper pain relief can also be prescribed.