Development and validation of a method for the quantification of extractable perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in textiles

I. van der Veen, J.M. Weiss, A.C. Hanning, J. de Boer, P.E.G. Leonards

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

In textiles, like outdoor clothing, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are often used for durable water repellency (DWR) of the final products. The analytical performance to determine the concentration of these chemicals available for exposure to humans and to the environment need to be established. Here a method for the extraction and analysis of one class of PFASs, namely perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in outdoor clothing was developed and validated. The PFAAs which were validated, included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C<inf>4</inf>-C<inf>14</inf>), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (C<inf>4</inf>, C<inf>6</inf>, C<inf>7</inf>, C<inf>8</inf>). In addition, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) was included in this study. The method was based on an organic solvent extraction and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). No further cleaning was needed. Two commonly used organic solvent compositions were evaluated for the optimal extraction, i.e. methanol and acetone/acetonitrile (80:20, v/v), and the number and duration of the sequential extractions were optimized. Results showed that two sequential extractions with 5 mL methanol and an extraction time of 30 min gave an optimal performance with an extraction efficiency of >90%. The influence of matrix on the quantification of PFAAs was studied. This indicated ion suppression due to different matrix effects or sorption behavior to specific textile samples. Validation of the entire method showed overall recoveries of>80% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of<9% (n=3) for repeatability and <20% (n=3) for reproducibility. This is the first validation of an analytical method for the analysis of extractable PFCAs, PFSAs and FOSA associated to textiles, which is of high importance due to the regulation of PFAAs in textile.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-15
JournalTalanta
Volume147
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Sulfonamides
Textiles
Acids
Sulfonic Acids
Carboxylic Acids
Organic solvents
Methanol
High performance liquid chromatography
Solvent extraction
Acetone
Mass spectrometry
perfluorooctane
Sorption
Cleaning
Ions
Recovery
Water
Chemical analysis

Cite this

@article{aa3223502a774d359e6f95010bd451dc,
title = "Development and validation of a method for the quantification of extractable perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in textiles",
abstract = "In textiles, like outdoor clothing, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are often used for durable water repellency (DWR) of the final products. The analytical performance to determine the concentration of these chemicals available for exposure to humans and to the environment need to be established. Here a method for the extraction and analysis of one class of PFASs, namely perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in outdoor clothing was developed and validated. The PFAAs which were validated, included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C4-C14), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (C4, C6, C7, C8). In addition, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) was included in this study. The method was based on an organic solvent extraction and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). No further cleaning was needed. Two commonly used organic solvent compositions were evaluated for the optimal extraction, i.e. methanol and acetone/acetonitrile (80:20, v/v), and the number and duration of the sequential extractions were optimized. Results showed that two sequential extractions with 5 mL methanol and an extraction time of 30 min gave an optimal performance with an extraction efficiency of >90{\%}. The influence of matrix on the quantification of PFAAs was studied. This indicated ion suppression due to different matrix effects or sorption behavior to specific textile samples. Validation of the entire method showed overall recoveries of>80{\%} and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of<9{\%} (n=3) for repeatability and <20{\%} (n=3) for reproducibility. This is the first validation of an analytical method for the analysis of extractable PFCAs, PFSAs and FOSA associated to textiles, which is of high importance due to the regulation of PFAAs in textile.",
author = "{van der Veen}, I. and J.M. Weiss and A.C. Hanning and {de Boer}, J. and P.E.G. Leonards",
year = "2016",
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language = "English",
volume = "147",
pages = "8--15",
journal = "Talanta",
issn = "0039-9140",
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}

Development and validation of a method for the quantification of extractable perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in textiles. / van der Veen, I.; Weiss, J.M.; Hanning, A.C.; de Boer, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

In: Talanta, Vol. 147, 2016, p. 8-15.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Development and validation of a method for the quantification of extractable perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in textiles

AU - van der Veen, I.

AU - Weiss, J.M.

AU - Hanning, A.C.

AU - de Boer, J.

AU - Leonards, P.E.G.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - In textiles, like outdoor clothing, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are often used for durable water repellency (DWR) of the final products. The analytical performance to determine the concentration of these chemicals available for exposure to humans and to the environment need to be established. Here a method for the extraction and analysis of one class of PFASs, namely perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in outdoor clothing was developed and validated. The PFAAs which were validated, included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C4-C14), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (C4, C6, C7, C8). In addition, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) was included in this study. The method was based on an organic solvent extraction and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). No further cleaning was needed. Two commonly used organic solvent compositions were evaluated for the optimal extraction, i.e. methanol and acetone/acetonitrile (80:20, v/v), and the number and duration of the sequential extractions were optimized. Results showed that two sequential extractions with 5 mL methanol and an extraction time of 30 min gave an optimal performance with an extraction efficiency of >90%. The influence of matrix on the quantification of PFAAs was studied. This indicated ion suppression due to different matrix effects or sorption behavior to specific textile samples. Validation of the entire method showed overall recoveries of>80% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of<9% (n=3) for repeatability and <20% (n=3) for reproducibility. This is the first validation of an analytical method for the analysis of extractable PFCAs, PFSAs and FOSA associated to textiles, which is of high importance due to the regulation of PFAAs in textile.

AB - In textiles, like outdoor clothing, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are often used for durable water repellency (DWR) of the final products. The analytical performance to determine the concentration of these chemicals available for exposure to humans and to the environment need to be established. Here a method for the extraction and analysis of one class of PFASs, namely perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in outdoor clothing was developed and validated. The PFAAs which were validated, included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C4-C14), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (C4, C6, C7, C8). In addition, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) was included in this study. The method was based on an organic solvent extraction and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). No further cleaning was needed. Two commonly used organic solvent compositions were evaluated for the optimal extraction, i.e. methanol and acetone/acetonitrile (80:20, v/v), and the number and duration of the sequential extractions were optimized. Results showed that two sequential extractions with 5 mL methanol and an extraction time of 30 min gave an optimal performance with an extraction efficiency of >90%. The influence of matrix on the quantification of PFAAs was studied. This indicated ion suppression due to different matrix effects or sorption behavior to specific textile samples. Validation of the entire method showed overall recoveries of>80% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of<9% (n=3) for repeatability and <20% (n=3) for reproducibility. This is the first validation of an analytical method for the analysis of extractable PFCAs, PFSAs and FOSA associated to textiles, which is of high importance due to the regulation of PFAAs in textile.

U2 - 10.1016/j.talanta.2015.09.021

DO - 10.1016/j.talanta.2015.09.021

M3 - Article

VL - 147

SP - 8

EP - 15

JO - Talanta

JF - Talanta

SN - 0039-9140

ER -