Development of independent walking in toddlers

Yuri P Ivanenko, Nadia Dominici, Francesco Lacquaniti

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Surprisingly, despite millions of years of bipedal walking evolution, the gravity-related pendulum mechanism of walking does not seem to be implemented at the onset of independent walking, requiring each toddler to develop it. We discuss the precursor of the mature locomotor pattern in infants as an optimal starting point strategy for gait maturation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-73
Number of pages7
JournalExercise and Sport Science Reviews
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2007


  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Child Development
  • Foot
  • Gait
  • Gravitation
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Leg
  • Postural Balance
  • Thigh
  • Walking
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review


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