In a longitudinal designed study, young female dancers, spending about 15 hr weekly on classical and modern ballet education, filled in questionnaires measuring temperamental and motivational traits. Subjects were tested on two occasions, with a time interval of 2 yr between first and second occasion. In addition, on the second testing occasion a new sample of dancers filled in the questionnaires for the first time. The results confirmed the typical personality profile of dancers, reported in an earlier study, i.e. dancers being introverted, relatively high on emotionality, strongly achievement motivated, and exhibiting less favourable self-attitudes. Differences in personality scores between dancers who had continued their professional ballet education and those who had dropped out were small. It is concluded that differences in personality traits between dancers and non-dancers are most likely the result of a process of self-selection, i.e. the ballet subculture attracts persons who possess particular personality traits. © 1991.