Development of the PRCQ: A measure of perceived restorative characteristics of zoo attractions

R. Pals*, L. Steg, F. W. Siero, K. I. van der Zee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This study describes the development of the Perceived Restorative Characteristics Questionnaire (PRCQ), a measure of perceived restorative characteristics of zoo attractions. The questionnaire was administered in two zoo attractions. The hypothesized five factor structure of the PRCQ, and relations between perceived restorative characteristics and experienced pleasure in and preference for the attractions were examined. In Study 1, 137 visitors of a Dutch zoo evaluated perceived restorative characteristics of a butterfly garden; In Study 2, 158 visitors evaluated those of a baboon attraction. In Study 1 three factors emerged (fascination, escape and coherence); In Study 2 four factors could be distinguished (fascination, novelty, escape, coherence). Compatibility did not appear as a separate factoring either study. Perceived fascination and escape were significant predictors of experienced pleasure and preference in both attractions. The implications of the findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)441-449
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Environmental Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2009


  • Perceived restorativeness
  • Pleasure
  • Preference
  • Restorative environments
  • Visitor experience
  • Zoo attractions


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