OBJECTIVE- The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between diabetes- related symptom distress, glucose metabolism status, and comorbidities of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- This was a cross-sectional sample of 281 individuals with normal glucose metabolism (NGM), 181 individuals with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM), and 107 subjects with type 2 diabetes. We used the revised type 2 Diabetes Symptom Checklist (DSC-R) to assess diabetes-related symptom distress. RESULTS- The total symptom distress score (range 0-100) was relatively low for diabetic subjects (mean ± SD 8.4 ± 9.4), although it was significantly different from that for subjects with IGM (6.5 ± 7.1) and NGM (6.1 ± 7.9) (F = 3.1, 2 d.f., P = 0.046). Ischemic heart disease was associated with elevated DSC-R scores on three subscales, whereas depression showed higher symptom distress levels across all DSC-R domains. CONCLUSIONS- Worsening glucose metabolism is associated with increasing diabetes- related symptom distress. This relationship is attenuated by ischemic heart disease and particularly by depression. © 2008 by the American Diabetes Association.
Adriaanse, M. C., Pouwer, F., Dekker, J. M., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Heine, R. J., & Snoek, F. J. (2008). Diabetes-related symptom distress in association with glucose metabolism and co-morbidity: the Hoorn Study. Diabetes Care, 31, 2268-2270. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc08-1074