The environment in the northern part of Tanzania is influenced by rapid population growth, and increased urbanization. Urban agriculture is common and of economic value for low income families. In Arusha, many households sell eggs from free-ranging backyard chicken. In 2011, 159 eggs from different households in five different locations in Arusha were collected, homogenized, pooled into 28 composite samples and analyzed for a wide selection of POPs. Levels of POPs varied widely within and between the locations. The levels of dieldrin and σDDT ranged between 2 and 98,791 and 2 and 324 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively. EU MRLs of 0.02 mg/kg dieldrin for eggs were exceeded in 4/28 samples. PCBs, HCHs, chlordanes, toxaphenes and endosulfanes were found at lower frequency and levels. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), e.g polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromphenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were present in 100%, 60% and 46% of the composite samples, respectively. Octa-and deca-BDEs were the dominating PBDEs and BDE 209 levels ranged between <. LOQ (limit of quantification) - 312 ng/g lw. Dioxins were measured using the DR-LUC bio-assay and found in levels of <. LOQ - 20 pg bio-TEQs/g lw. Four samples (13%) exceeded the maximum level of 5 pg/g total WHO-TEQs for hen eggs set by the Commission Regulation (EU) No 1259/2011. The daily/weekly intake was calculated and risk was characterized for all compounds comparing with available toxicity reference values (TRVs) such as the provisional tolerable intake (PTDI) or Reference Doses (RfDs). In one sample dieldrin exceeded the PTDI (100 ng/kg bw/day). Correlation was found between bio-TEQs and lipid adjusted levels of σPBDEs, suggesting similar sources. Open fires in backyards may be one of the sources for contamination of eggs with BFRs and dioxins.
Polder, A., Moberg, H., Brynildsrud, O. B., de Boer, J., Hamers, T., Kamstra, J. H., ... Lyche, J. L. (2016). Dioxins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and brominated flame retardants in free-range chicken eggs from peri-urban areas in Arusha, Tanzania: Levels and implications for human health. Science of the Total Environment, 551/552, 656-667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.021