Direct and indirect costs associated with nonoperative treatment for shoulder instability: an observational study in 132 patients

Just A. van der Linde*, Judith E. Bosmans, Dirk P. ter Meulen, Derk A. van Kampen, Derek F.P. van Deurzen, Robert Haverlag, Daniel B.F. Saris, Michel P.J. van den Bekerom

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background: Shoulder instability is associated with decreased functioning. The associated costs could be substantial and interesting to clinicians, researchers, and policy makers. This prospective observational study aims to (1) estimate productivity losses and healthcare expenses following the nonoperative treatment of shoulder instability and (2) identify patient characteristics that influence societal costs. Methods: One hundred and thirty-two patients completed a questionnaire regarding production losses and healthcare utilization following consecutive episodes of shoulder instability. Productivity losses were calculated using the friction cost approach. Healthcare utilization was evaluated using standard costs. analysis of variance test was used to assess which patient characteristics are related to productivity losses and healthcare expenses. Societal costs were assessed using multilevel analyses. Bootstrapping was used to estimate statistical uncertainty. Results: Mean productivity losses are €1469, €881, and €728 and mean healthcare expenses are €3759, €3267, and €2424 per patient per dislocation for the first, second, and third dislocation. Productivity losses decrease significantly after the second (mean difference €−1969, 95%CI= −3680 to −939) and third (mean difference €−2298, 95%CI= −4092 to −1288) compared to the first dislocation. Conclusions: Nonoperative treatment of shoulder instability has substantial societal costs. Level of Evidence: III, economic analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)265-274
Number of pages10
JournalShoulder and Elbow
Issue number4
Early online date14 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019


  • absenteeism
  • coping
  • economic analysis
  • shoulder instability
  • societal costs


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