Disability transitions in the oldest old in the general population. The Leiden 85-plus study

Anne H van Houwelingen, Ian D Cameron, Jacobijn Gussekloo, Hein Putter, Susan Kurrle, Anton J M de Craen, Andrea B Maier, Wendy P J den Elzen, Jeanet W Blom

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Transitions between disability states in older people occur frequently. This study investigated predictors of disability transitions in the oldest old and was performed in the Leiden 85-plus study, a population-based prospective cohort study among 597 participants aged 85 years. At baseline (age 85 years), data on sociodemographic characteristics and chronic diseases were obtained. Disabilities in basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were measured annually for 5 years with the Groningen Activities Restriction Scale (GARS). Mortality data were obtained. A statistical multi-state model was used to assess the risks of transitions between no disabilities, IADL disability, BADL disability, and death. At baseline, 299 participants (50.0 %) were disabled in IADL only, and 155 participants (26.0 %) were disabled in both BADL and IADL. During 5-year follow-up, 374 participants (62.6 %) made >1 transition between disability states, mostly deterioration in disability. Males had a lower risk of deterioration [hazard ratio (HR), 0.75 (95 % CI, 0.58-0.96)] compared to females. No gender differences were observed for improvement [HR, 0.64 (95 % CI, 0.37-1.11)]. Participants with depressive symptoms were less likely to improve [HR, 0.50 (95 % CI, 0.28-0.87)]. Participants with depressive symptoms [HR, 1.46 (95 % CI, 1.12-1.91)], >1 chronic disease [HR, 1.60 (95 % CI, 1.27-2.01)], and with cognitive impairment [HR, 1.60 (95 % CI, 1.20-2.13)] had the highest risk of deteriorating. Disability is a dynamic process in the oldest old. Deterioration is more common than improvement. Older men are less likely to deteriorate than women. The presence of depressive symptoms, chronic disease, and cognitive impairment predicts deterioration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-93
Number of pages11
JournalAge
Volume36
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014

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Activities of Daily Living
Population
Chronic Disease
Depression
Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
Mortality

Keywords

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chronic Disease/epidemiology
  • Cognition Disorders/epidemiology
  • Depression/epidemiology
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Geriatric Assessment
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Netherlands/epidemiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors

Cite this

van Houwelingen, A. H., Cameron, I. D., Gussekloo, J., Putter, H., Kurrle, S., de Craen, A. J. M., ... Blom, J. W. (2014). Disability transitions in the oldest old in the general population. The Leiden 85-plus study. Age, 36(1), 483-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-013-9574-3
van Houwelingen, Anne H ; Cameron, Ian D ; Gussekloo, Jacobijn ; Putter, Hein ; Kurrle, Susan ; de Craen, Anton J M ; Maier, Andrea B ; den Elzen, Wendy P J ; Blom, Jeanet W. / Disability transitions in the oldest old in the general population. The Leiden 85-plus study. In: Age. 2014 ; Vol. 36, No. 1. pp. 483-93.
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abstract = "Transitions between disability states in older people occur frequently. This study investigated predictors of disability transitions in the oldest old and was performed in the Leiden 85-plus study, a population-based prospective cohort study among 597 participants aged 85 years. At baseline (age 85 years), data on sociodemographic characteristics and chronic diseases were obtained. Disabilities in basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were measured annually for 5 years with the Groningen Activities Restriction Scale (GARS). Mortality data were obtained. A statistical multi-state model was used to assess the risks of transitions between no disabilities, IADL disability, BADL disability, and death. At baseline, 299 participants (50.0 {\%}) were disabled in IADL only, and 155 participants (26.0 {\%}) were disabled in both BADL and IADL. During 5-year follow-up, 374 participants (62.6 {\%}) made >1 transition between disability states, mostly deterioration in disability. Males had a lower risk of deterioration [hazard ratio (HR), 0.75 (95 {\%} CI, 0.58-0.96)] compared to females. No gender differences were observed for improvement [HR, 0.64 (95 {\%} CI, 0.37-1.11)]. Participants with depressive symptoms were less likely to improve [HR, 0.50 (95 {\%} CI, 0.28-0.87)]. Participants with depressive symptoms [HR, 1.46 (95 {\%} CI, 1.12-1.91)], >1 chronic disease [HR, 1.60 (95 {\%} CI, 1.27-2.01)], and with cognitive impairment [HR, 1.60 (95 {\%} CI, 1.20-2.13)] had the highest risk of deteriorating. Disability is a dynamic process in the oldest old. Deterioration is more common than improvement. Older men are less likely to deteriorate than women. The presence of depressive symptoms, chronic disease, and cognitive impairment predicts deterioration.",
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van Houwelingen, AH, Cameron, ID, Gussekloo, J, Putter, H, Kurrle, S, de Craen, AJM, Maier, AB, den Elzen, WPJ & Blom, JW 2014, 'Disability transitions in the oldest old in the general population. The Leiden 85-plus study' Age, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 483-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-013-9574-3

Disability transitions in the oldest old in the general population. The Leiden 85-plus study. / van Houwelingen, Anne H; Cameron, Ian D; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Putter, Hein; Kurrle, Susan; de Craen, Anton J M; Maier, Andrea B; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Blom, Jeanet W.

In: Age, Vol. 36, No. 1, 02.2014, p. 483-93.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Disability transitions in the oldest old in the general population. The Leiden 85-plus study

AU - van Houwelingen, Anne H

AU - Cameron, Ian D

AU - Gussekloo, Jacobijn

AU - Putter, Hein

AU - Kurrle, Susan

AU - de Craen, Anton J M

AU - Maier, Andrea B

AU - den Elzen, Wendy P J

AU - Blom, Jeanet W

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AB - Transitions between disability states in older people occur frequently. This study investigated predictors of disability transitions in the oldest old and was performed in the Leiden 85-plus study, a population-based prospective cohort study among 597 participants aged 85 years. At baseline (age 85 years), data on sociodemographic characteristics and chronic diseases were obtained. Disabilities in basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were measured annually for 5 years with the Groningen Activities Restriction Scale (GARS). Mortality data were obtained. A statistical multi-state model was used to assess the risks of transitions between no disabilities, IADL disability, BADL disability, and death. At baseline, 299 participants (50.0 %) were disabled in IADL only, and 155 participants (26.0 %) were disabled in both BADL and IADL. During 5-year follow-up, 374 participants (62.6 %) made >1 transition between disability states, mostly deterioration in disability. Males had a lower risk of deterioration [hazard ratio (HR), 0.75 (95 % CI, 0.58-0.96)] compared to females. No gender differences were observed for improvement [HR, 0.64 (95 % CI, 0.37-1.11)]. Participants with depressive symptoms were less likely to improve [HR, 0.50 (95 % CI, 0.28-0.87)]. Participants with depressive symptoms [HR, 1.46 (95 % CI, 1.12-1.91)], >1 chronic disease [HR, 1.60 (95 % CI, 1.27-2.01)], and with cognitive impairment [HR, 1.60 (95 % CI, 1.20-2.13)] had the highest risk of deteriorating. Disability is a dynamic process in the oldest old. Deterioration is more common than improvement. Older men are less likely to deteriorate than women. The presence of depressive symptoms, chronic disease, and cognitive impairment predicts deterioration.

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KW - Cognition Disorders/epidemiology

KW - Depression/epidemiology

KW - Disability Evaluation

KW - Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data

KW - Female

KW - Geriatric Assessment

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Netherlands/epidemiology

KW - Prospective Studies

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Socioeconomic Factors

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DO - 10.1007/s11357-013-9574-3

M3 - Article

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SP - 483

EP - 493

JO - Age

JF - Age

SN - 0161-9152

IS - 1

ER -

van Houwelingen AH, Cameron ID, Gussekloo J, Putter H, Kurrle S, de Craen AJM et al. Disability transitions in the oldest old in the general population. The Leiden 85-plus study. Age. 2014 Feb;36(1):483-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-013-9574-3