Background: Trypanothione synthetase catalyzes the conjugation of spermidine with two GSH molecules to form trypanothione. Results: The kinetic parameters were measured under in vivo-like conditions. A mathematical model was developed describing the entire kinetic profile. Conclusion: Trypanothione synthetase is affected by substrate and product inhibition. Significance: The combined kinetic and modeling approaches provided a so far unprecedented insight in the mechanism of this parasite-specific enzyme. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.