Distinguishing groups and exploring health differences among multiple job holders aged 45 years and older

Stef Bouwhuis*, Trynke Hoekstra, Paulien M. Bongers, Cécile R.L. Boot, Goedele A. Geuskens, Allard J. van der Beek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


To identify distinct groups of older multiple job holders and to explore health differences between these groups.
We selected respondents from STREAM, a Dutch cohort study among persons aged 45 years and older, who reported having multiple jobs (N=702). We applied latent class analysis to identify groups of multiple job holders. The association between these groups and health, measured with the SF-12, was studied cross-sectionally and longitudinally (1 year of follow-up), using linear regression analyses.
Four groups of older multiple job holders were identified: (1) a vulnerable group (N=145), who preferred having one job, and had jobs with high demands and low resources; (2) an indifferent group (N=134), who did not experience many
benefits or disadvantages of multiple job holding (MJH); (3) a satisfied hybrid group, who were all self-employed in their second job (N=310); and (4) a satisfied combination group, who all had a second job as an employee (N=113). Both the satisfied hybrid and satisfied combination groups preferred MJH and experienced benefits of it. At baseline, the vulnerable group experienced significantly lower physical and mental health than the other groups. We found no significant differences regarding changes in health after 1 year.
Four groups of older multiple job holders could be distinguished. The vulnerable group experienced lower physical and mental health at baseline than the other three groups. Policies and interventions supporting vulnerable multiple job holders may need to be developed. Future research is recommended to take heterogeneity among multiple job holders into account.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-79
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Issue number1
Early online date8 Sept 2018
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jan 2019


  • Aging employee
  • Latent class analysis
  • Moonlighting
  • Self-perceived health


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