Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study

Petra J Havinga, Lynn Boschloo, Annelene J P Bloemen, Maaike H Nauta, Sybolt O de Vries, Brenda W J H Penninx, Robert A Schoevers, Catharina A Hartman

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is limited as large-scale longitudinal studies with a follow-up into adulthood are scarce. Those offspring at highest risk may possibly be identified by easy-to-determine parental psychiatric characteristics, family context, and offspring characteristics.

METHODS: From 2000-2002, we recruited 523 offspring (age 13-25 years) of 366 patients who had received specialized treatment for depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Offspring DSM-IV mood (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) were assessed at baseline and at 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year follow-up.

RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of mood and/or anxiety disorder was 38.0% at age 20 years and 64.7% at age 35 years. Parental early disorder onset (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.77), having 2 affected parents (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.27), and offspring female gender (HR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.74-3.15) were independent predictors of offspring mood and/or anxiety disorder. Balanced family functioning (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96) was found to be protective against offspring risk.

CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of depressed and anxious patients are at very high risk of a mood and/or anxiety disorder themselves. Parental early onset, having 2 affected parents, female gender, and family functioning are important additional markers that can be used in clinical practice to identify those offspring at greatest risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e8-e17
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychiatry
Volume78
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017

Fingerprint

Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders
Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
Incidence
Depressive Disorder
Parents
Agoraphobia
Panic Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Bipolar Disorder
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Psychiatry
Longitudinal Studies

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis
  • Child of Impaired Parents/psychology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Mood Disorders/diagnosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult

Cite this

Havinga, Petra J ; Boschloo, Lynn ; Bloemen, Annelene J P ; Nauta, Maaike H ; de Vries, Sybolt O ; Penninx, Brenda W J H ; Schoevers, Robert A ; Hartman, Catharina A. / Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study. In: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2017 ; Vol. 78, No. 1. pp. e8-e17.
@article{e0f789c63cdf40159eaa1d98dd9f3484,
title = "Doomed for Disorder?: High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is limited as large-scale longitudinal studies with a follow-up into adulthood are scarce. Those offspring at highest risk may possibly be identified by easy-to-determine parental psychiatric characteristics, family context, and offspring characteristics.METHODS: From 2000-2002, we recruited 523 offspring (age 13-25 years) of 366 patients who had received specialized treatment for depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Offspring DSM-IV mood (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) were assessed at baseline and at 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year follow-up.RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of mood and/or anxiety disorder was 38.0{\%} at age 20 years and 64.7{\%} at age 35 years. Parental early disorder onset (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95{\%} CI, 1.00-1.77), having 2 affected parents (HR = 1.58; 95{\%} CI, 1.10-2.27), and offspring female gender (HR = 2.34; 95{\%} CI, 1.74-3.15) were independent predictors of offspring mood and/or anxiety disorder. Balanced family functioning (HR = 0.73; 95{\%} CI, 0.56-0.96) was found to be protective against offspring risk.CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of depressed and anxious patients are at very high risk of a mood and/or anxiety disorder themselves. Parental early onset, having 2 affected parents, female gender, and family functioning are important additional markers that can be used in clinical practice to identify those offspring at greatest risk.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis, Child of Impaired Parents/psychology, Cohort Studies, Early Diagnosis, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics, Humans, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Male, Mood Disorders/diagnosis, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Young Adult",
author = "Havinga, {Petra J} and Lynn Boschloo and Bloemen, {Annelene J P} and Nauta, {Maaike H} and {de Vries}, {Sybolt O} and Penninx, {Brenda W J H} and Schoevers, {Robert A} and Hartman, {Catharina A}",
note = "{\circledC} Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
doi = "10.4088/JCP.15m09936",
language = "English",
volume = "78",
pages = "e8--e17",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Psychiatry",
issn = "0160-6689",
publisher = "AIP Press",
number = "1",

}

Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study. / Havinga, Petra J; Boschloo, Lynn; Bloemen, Annelene J P; Nauta, Maaike H; de Vries, Sybolt O; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Schoevers, Robert A; Hartman, Catharina A.

In: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 78, No. 1, 01.2017, p. e8-e17.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Doomed for Disorder?

T2 - High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study

AU - Havinga, Petra J

AU - Boschloo, Lynn

AU - Bloemen, Annelene J P

AU - Nauta, Maaike H

AU - de Vries, Sybolt O

AU - Penninx, Brenda W J H

AU - Schoevers, Robert A

AU - Hartman, Catharina A

N1 - © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

PY - 2017/1

Y1 - 2017/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE: Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is limited as large-scale longitudinal studies with a follow-up into adulthood are scarce. Those offspring at highest risk may possibly be identified by easy-to-determine parental psychiatric characteristics, family context, and offspring characteristics.METHODS: From 2000-2002, we recruited 523 offspring (age 13-25 years) of 366 patients who had received specialized treatment for depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Offspring DSM-IV mood (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) were assessed at baseline and at 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year follow-up.RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of mood and/or anxiety disorder was 38.0% at age 20 years and 64.7% at age 35 years. Parental early disorder onset (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.77), having 2 affected parents (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.27), and offspring female gender (HR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.74-3.15) were independent predictors of offspring mood and/or anxiety disorder. Balanced family functioning (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96) was found to be protective against offspring risk.CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of depressed and anxious patients are at very high risk of a mood and/or anxiety disorder themselves. Parental early onset, having 2 affected parents, female gender, and family functioning are important additional markers that can be used in clinical practice to identify those offspring at greatest risk.

AB - OBJECTIVE: Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is limited as large-scale longitudinal studies with a follow-up into adulthood are scarce. Those offspring at highest risk may possibly be identified by easy-to-determine parental psychiatric characteristics, family context, and offspring characteristics.METHODS: From 2000-2002, we recruited 523 offspring (age 13-25 years) of 366 patients who had received specialized treatment for depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Offspring DSM-IV mood (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) were assessed at baseline and at 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year follow-up.RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of mood and/or anxiety disorder was 38.0% at age 20 years and 64.7% at age 35 years. Parental early disorder onset (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.77), having 2 affected parents (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.27), and offspring female gender (HR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.74-3.15) were independent predictors of offspring mood and/or anxiety disorder. Balanced family functioning (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96) was found to be protective against offspring risk.CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of depressed and anxious patients are at very high risk of a mood and/or anxiety disorder themselves. Parental early onset, having 2 affected parents, female gender, and family functioning are important additional markers that can be used in clinical practice to identify those offspring at greatest risk.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis

KW - Child of Impaired Parents/psychology

KW - Cohort Studies

KW - Early Diagnosis

KW - Female

KW - Follow-Up Studies

KW - Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics

KW - Humans

KW - Kaplan-Meier Estimate

KW - Male

KW - Mood Disorders/diagnosis

KW - Prospective Studies

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Young Adult

U2 - 10.4088/JCP.15m09936

DO - 10.4088/JCP.15m09936

M3 - Article

VL - 78

SP - e8-e17

JO - Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

JF - Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

SN - 0160-6689

IS - 1

ER -