We systematically reviewed evidence from observational studies on the associations between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and early-life antibiotic exposure. Eleven articles were included in the review. Prenatal antibiotic exposure was associated with a slightly increased risk of ASD in two cohort studies on overlapping populations and in one case–control study; in three other case–control studies, no significant association was found. One cohort study found a slightly reduced risk of ASD after postnatal antibiotic exposure, while two other cohort studies on overlapping populations and three case–control studies reported an increased risk. Meta-analysis of the eligible studies showed no significant associations. Current data are conflicting and do not conclusively support the hypothesis that early-life antibiotic exposure is associated with subsequent ASD development.