Background: The present study examined (1) the association between changes in perceived parental control and support from age 13 to 15 and early onset of cannabis use (before age 16), and (2) whether personality modifies the association between a decline in perceived parental control and support and early onset of cannabis use. Method: Objectives were studied using data (three waves covering two years) from 444 Dutch adolescents participating in the Research on Adolescent Development and Relationships (RADAR) study. Adolescents had a mean age of 13 years at baseline, and reported at each wave about perceived parental control and support. Big Five personality traits and past year cannabis use were also measured by self-report. Joint latent growth curve-discrete-time survival analyses were used to answer the research questions. Results: Early onset of cannabis use was reported by 19.4% of the sample. Overall, a decline in perceived parental control or support from age 13 to age 15 was unrelated to the risk of early onset of cannabis use. In adolescents with low levels of emotional stability and extraversion, a stronger decline in perceived parental control was associated with an increased risk of early cannabis use. Conclusions: Experiencing a decline in parental control from age 13 to 15 is associated with early onset of cannabis use in adolescents characterized by low emotional stability and low extraversion.
Creemers, H. E., Buil, J. M., van Lier, P. A. C., Keijsers, L., Meeus, W., Koot, H. M., & Huizink, A. C. (2015). Early onset of cannabis use: Does personality modify the relation with changes in perceived parental involvement? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 146, 61-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.11.004