Mammalian neocortex is a highly layered structure. Each layer is populated by distinct subtypes of principal cells that are born at different times during development. While the differences between principal cells across layers have been extensively studied, it is not known how the developmental profiles of neurons in different layers compare. Here, we provide a detailed morphological and functional characterisation of pyramidal neurons in mouse mPFC during the first postnatal month, corresponding to known critical periods for synapse and neuron formation in mouse sensory neocortex. Our data demonstrate similar maturation profiles of dendritic morphology and intrinsic properties of pyramidal neurons in both deep and superficial layers. In contrast, the balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition differs in a layer-specific pattern from one to four postnatal weeks of age. Our characterisation of the early development and maturation of pyramidal neurons in mouse mPFC not only demonstrates a comparable time course of postnatal maturation to that in other neocortical circuits, but also implies that consideration of layer- and time-specific changes in pyramidal neurons may be relevant for studies in mouse models of neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.