© 2021 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic DentistryStatement of problem: The extrinsic characterization with pigments and glaze application on the surface of ceramic restorations promotes individualization and esthetics. However, whether this characterization is resistant to toothbrushing abrasive wear is unclear. Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the abrasive wear resistance of characterized and glazed resin-modified ceramic with different surface treatments before characterization. Material and methods: Eighty rectangular specimens (10×8×6 mm) were precision cut from Vita Enamic and randomly divided in 4 groups as per the surface treatment before the characterization technique. These groups included the following: no additional treatment or polishing only, acid etching, airborne-particle abrasion, and self-etching silanization. For each surface treatment, 2 subgroups were created considering the presence or absence of the glaze layer after shade characterization, totaling 8 groups (n=10). The specimens were submitted to toothbrushing simulation (150 000 cycles, 2.45-N, 180 strokes per minute) with a soft and straight toothbrush and a solution of toothpaste and distilled water (250 g/L). After each 50 000 cycles, the wear of the characterized surface was measured by using a contact profilometer in μm which was equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 years of simulated toothbrushing. The rates were analyzed by using 3-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey test (α=.05). Scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to access the surface profile between the evaluated periods. Results: The mean wear rate (Rz) of the characterized surface was affected by the isolated factors, including surface treatment, glaze, and time (P<.001), with no interactive effects noted. A higher mean value of Rz was observed for polishing only (12.9 ±4.4 μm), followed by airborne-particle abrasion (10.2 ±4.5 μm), acid etching (9.4 ±2.4 μm), and then self-etching silanization (7.6 ±2.9 μm). Mean wear rate was also increased by the glaze (11.1 ±4.7 μm) compared with its absence (9 ±3.2 μm) and by the length of time, with 15 years (11.3 ±4.5 μm) followed by 10 years (9.8 ±4.0 μm) and 5 years (9 ±3.6 μm). The scanning electron microscopy images showed similar worn surfaces for each subgroup, glaze removal after 150 000 cycles, and surface homogeneity in function of time. Conclusions: Self-etching silanization was found to be the treatment suitable for reducing the wear of characterized resin-modified ceramic during prolonged brushing of more than 5 years. Glaze application did not protect the characterization from surface wear, regardless of the ceramic surface treatment performed on the specimens.